4,627 research outputs found

    Pulses and Snakes in Ginzburg--Landau Equation

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    Using a variational formulation for partial differential equations (PDEs) combined with numerical simulations on ordinary differential equations (ODEs), we find two categories (pulses and snakes) of dissipative solitons, and analyze the dependence of both their shape and stability on the physical parameters of the cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE). In contrast to the regular solitary waves investigated in numerous integrable and non-integrable systems over the last three decades, these dissipative solitons are not stationary in time. Rather, they are spatially confined pulse-type structures whose envelopes exhibit complicated temporal dynamics. Numerical simulations reveal very interesting bifurcations sequences as the parameters of the CGLE are varied. Our predictions on the variation of the soliton amplitude, width, position, speed and phase of the solutions using the variational formulation agree with simulation results.Comment: 30 pages, 14 figure

    Smooth and non-smooth traveling wave solutions of some generalized Camassa-Holm equations

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    In this paper we employ two recent analytical approaches to investigate the possible classes of traveling wave solutions of some members of a recently-derived integrable family of generalized Camassa-Holm (GCH) equations. A recent, novel application of phase-plane analysis is employed to analyze the singular traveling wave equations of three of the GCH NLPDEs, i.e. the possible non-smooth peakon and cuspon solutions. One of the considered GCH equations supports both solitary (peakon) and periodic (cuspon) cusp waves in different parameter regimes. The second equation does not support singular traveling waves and the last one supports four-segmented, non-smooth MM-wave solutions. Moreover, smooth traveling waves of the three GCH equations are considered. Here, we use a recent technique to derive convergent multi-infinite series solutions for the homoclinic orbits of their traveling-wave equations, corresponding to pulse (kink or shock) solutions respectively of the original PDEs. We perform many numerical tests in different parameter regime to pinpoint real saddle equilibrium points of the corresponding GCH equations, as well as ensure simultaneous convergence and continuity of the multi-infinite series solutions for the homoclinic orbits anchored by these saddle points. Unlike the majority of unaccelerated convergent series, high accuracy is attained with relatively few terms. We also show the traveling wave nature of these pulse and front solutions to the GCH NLPDEs

    Regular and Singular Pulse and Front Solutions and Possible Isochronous Behavior in the Short-Pulse Equation: Phase-Plane, Multi-Infinite Series and Variational Approaches

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    In this paper we employ three recent analytical approaches to investigate the possible classes of traveling wave solutions of some members of a family of so-called short-pulse equations (SPE). A recent, novel application of phase-plane analysis is first employed to show the existence of breaking kink wave solutions in certain parameter regimes. Secondly, smooth traveling waves are derived using a recent technique to derive convergent multi-infinite series solutions for the homoclinic (heteroclinic) orbits of the traveling-wave equations for the SPE equation, as well as for its generalized version with arbitrary coefficients. These correspond to pulse (kink or shock) solutions respectively of the original PDEs. Unlike the majority of unaccelerated convergent series, high accuracy is attained with relatively few terms. And finally, variational methods are employed to generate families of both regular and embedded solitary wave solutions for the SPE PDE. The technique for obtaining the embedded solitons incorporates several recent generalizations of the usual variational technique and it is thus topical in itself. One unusual feature of the solitary waves derived here is that we are able to obtain them in analytical form (within the assumed ansatz for the trial functions). Thus, a direct error analysis is performed, showing the accuracy of the resulting solitary waves. Given the importance of solitary wave solutions in wave dynamics and information propagation in nonlinear PDEs, as well as the fact that not much is known about solutions of the family of generalized SPE equations considered here, the results obtained are both new and timely.Comment: accepted for publication in Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulatio

    Testing Reionization with Gamma Ray Burst Absorption Spectra

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    We propose to study cosmic reionization using absorption line spectra of high-redshift Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) afterglows. We show that the statistics of the dark portions (gaps) in GRB absorption spectra represent exquisite tools to discriminate among different reionization models. We then compute the probability to find the largest gap in a given width range [Wmax, Wmax + dW] at a flux threshold Fth for burst afterglows at redshifts 6.3 < z < 6.7. We show that different reionization scenarios populate the (Wmax, Fth) plane in a very different way, allowing to distinguish among different reionization histories. We provide here useful plots that allow a very simple and direct comparison between observations and model results. Finally, we apply our methods to GRB 050904 detected at z = 6.29. We show that the observation of this burst strongly favors reionization models which predict a highly ionized intergalactic medium at z~6, with an estimated mean neutral hydrogen fraction xHI = 6.4 \pm 0.3 \times 10^-5 along the line of sight towards GRB 050904.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, revised to match the accepted version; major change: gap statistics is now studied in terms of the flux threshold Fth, instead of the observed J-band flux FJ; MNRAS in pres

    Reply to [arXiv:1105.5653]: "Comment on 'Quasinormal modes in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime: A simple derivation of the level spacing of the frequencies'"

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    We explain why the analysis in our paper [Phys. Rev. D 69, 064033 (2004), arXiv:gr-qc/0311064 ] is relevant and correct.Comment: 2 page

    Invariant Painleve analysis and coherent structures of two families of reaction-diffusion equations

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    Exact closed-form coherent structures (pulses/fronts/domain walls) having the form of complicated traveling waves are constructed for two families of reaction-diffusion equations by the use of invariant Painleveacute analysis. These analytical solutions, which are derived directly from the underlying PDE\u27s, are investigated in the light of restrictions imposed by the ODE that any traveling wave reduction of the corresponding PDE must satisfy. In particular, it is shown that the coherent structures (a) asymptotically satisfy the ODE governing traveling wave reductions, and (b) are accessible to the PDE from compact support initial conditions. The solutions are compared with each other, and with previously known solutions of the equations
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