3,680 research outputs found

    Time Dependent Clustering Analysis of the Second BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

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    A time dependent two-point correlation-function analysis of the BATSE 2B catalog finds no evidence of burst repetition. As part of this analysis, we discuss the effects of sky exposure on the observability of burst repetition and present the equation describing the signature of burst repetition in the data. For a model of all burst repetition from a source occurring in less than five days we derive upper limits on the number of bursts in the catalog from repeaters and model-dependent upper limits on the fraction of burst sources that produce multiple outbursts.Comment: To appear in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, uuencoded compressed PostScript, 11 pages with 4 embedded figure

    1863-11-19 Assistant Surgeon Thomas Brainerd recommends discharge and treatment of Francis Pinkham for nervous diseases

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    Galactic Extinction from Colors and Counts of Field Galaxies in WFPC2 Frames: An Application to GRB 970228

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    We develop the ``simulated extinction method'' to measure average foreground Galactic extinction from field galaxy number-counts and colors. The method comprises simulating extinction in suitable reference fields by changing the isophotal detection limit. This procedure takes into account selection effects, in particular, the change in isophotal detection limit (and hence in isophotal magnitude completeness limit) with extinction, and the galaxy color--magnitude relation. We present a first application of the method to the HST WFPC2 images of the gamma-ray burster GRB 970228. Four different WFPC2 high-latitude fields, including the HDF, are used as reference to measure the average extinction towards the GRB in the F606W passband. From the counts, we derive an average extinction of A_V = 0.5 mag, but the dispersion of 0.4 mag between the estimates from the different reference fields is significantly larger than can be accounted by Poisson plus clustering uncertainties. Although the counts differ, the average colors of the field galaxies agree well. The extinction implied by the average color difference between the GRB field and the reference galaxies is A_V = 0.6 mag, with a dispersion in the estimated extinction from the four reference fields of only 0.1 mag. All our estimates are in good agreement with the value of 0.81\pm0.27 mag obtained by Burstein & Heiles, and with the extinction of 0.78\pm0.12 measured by Schlegel et al. from maps of dust IR emission. However, the discrepancy between the widely varying counts and the very stable colors in these high-latitude fields is worth investigating.Comment: 14 pages, 2 figures; submitted to the Astrophysical Journa

    A Self-Reference False Memory Effect in the DRM Paradigm: Evidence from Eastern and Western Samples

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    It is well established that processing information in relation to oneself (i.e., selfreferencing) leads to better memory for that information than processing that same information in relation to others (i.e., other-referencing). However, it is unknown whether self-referencing also leads to more false memories than other-referencing. In the current two experiments with European and East Asian samples, we presented participants the Deese-Roediger/McDermott (DRM) lists together with their own name or other people’s name (i.e., “Trump” in Experiment 1 and “Li Ming” in Experiment 2). We found consistent results across the two experiments; that is, in the self-reference condition, participants had higher true and false memory rates compared to those in the other-reference condition. Moreover, we found that selfreferencing did not exhibit superior mnemonic advantage in terms of net accuracy compared to other-referencing and neutral conditions. These findings are discussed in terms of theoretical frameworks such as spreading activation theories and the fuzzytrace theory. We propose that our results reflect the adaptive nature of memory in the sense that cognitive processes that increase mnemonic efficiency may also increase susceptibility to associative false memories

    Faint K Selected Galaxy Correlations and Clustering Evolution

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    Angular and spatial correlations are measured for K-band--selected galaxies, 248 having redshifts, 54 with z>1, in two patches of combined area 27 arcmin^2. The angular correlation for K<=21.5 mag is (theta/1.4+/-0.19 arcsec e^{+/-0.1})^{-0.8}. From the redshift sample we find that the real-space correlation, calculated with q_0=0.1, of M_K<=-23.5 mag galaxies (k-corrected) is \xi(r) = (r/2.9e^{+/-0.12}1/h Mpc)^{-1.8} at a mean z= 0.34, (r/2.0e^{+/-0.15}1/h Mpc)^{-1.8} at z= 0.62, (r/1.4e^{+/-0.15}1/h Mpc)^{-1.8} at z= 0.97, and (r/1.0e^{+/-0.2}1/h Mpc)^{-1.8} at z= 1.39, the last being a formal upper limit for a blue-biased sample. In general, these are more correlated than optically selected samples in the same redshift ranges. Over the interval 0.32 AB mag, have \xi(r)=(r/2.4e^{+/-0.14}1/h Mpc)^{-1.8} whereas bluer galaxies, which have a mean B of 23.7 mag and mean [OII] equivalent width W_{eq} = 41=\AA, are very weakly correlated, with \xi(r)=(r/0.9e^{+/-0.22}1/h Mpc)^{-1.8}. For our measured growth rate of clustering, this blue population, if non-merging, can grow only into a low-redshift population less luminous than 0.4L_\ast. The cross-correlation of low- and high-luminosity galaxies at z=0.6 appears to have an excess in the correlation amplitude within 100/h kpc. The slow redshift evolution is consistent with these galaxies tracing the mass clustering in low density, Omega= 0.2, relatively unbiased, sigma_8=0.8, universe, but cannot yet exclude other possibilities.Comment: to be published in the Aug 1 ApJ, 20 pages as a uuencoded postscript file Postscript with all figures is available at http://manaslu.astro.utoronto.ca/~carlberg/paper

    On the Expressivity and Applicability of Model Representation Formalisms

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    A number of first-order calculi employ an explicit model representation formalism for automated reasoning and for detecting satisfiability. Many of these formalisms can represent infinite Herbrand models. The first-order fragment of monadic, shallow, linear, Horn (MSLH) clauses, is such a formalism used in the approximation refinement calculus. Our first result is a finite model property for MSLH clause sets. Therefore, MSLH clause sets cannot represent models of clause sets with inherently infinite models. Through a translation to tree automata, we further show that this limitation also applies to the linear fragments of implicit generalizations, which is the formalism used in the model-evolution calculus, to atoms with disequality constraints, the formalisms used in the non-redundant clause learning calculus (NRCL), and to atoms with membership constraints, a formalism used for example in decision procedures for algebraic data types. Although these formalisms cannot represent models of clause sets with inherently infinite models, through an additional approximation step they can. This is our second main result. For clause sets including the definition of an equivalence relation with the help of an additional, novel approximation, called reflexive relation splitting, the approximation refinement calculus can automatically show satisfiability through the MSLH clause set formalism.Comment: 15 page

    The non-Gaussian tail of cosmic-shear statistics

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    Due to gravitational instability, an initially Gaussian density field develops non-Gaussian features as the Universe evolves. The most prominent non-Gaussian features are massive haloes, visible as clusters of galaxies. The distortion of high-redshift galaxy images due to the tidal gravitational field of the large-scale matter distribution, called cosmic shear, can be used to investigate the statistical properties of the LSS. In particular, non-Gaussian properties of the LSS will lead to a non-Gaussian distribution of cosmic-shear statistics. The aperture mass (MapM_{\rm ap}) statistics, recently introduced as a measure for cosmic shear, is particularly well suited for measuring these non-Gaussian properties. In this paper we calculate the highly non-Gaussian tail of the aperture mass probability distribution, assuming Press-Schechter theory for the halo abundance and the `universal' density profile of haloes as obtained from numerical simulations. We find that for values of MapM_{\rm ap} much larger than its dispersion, this probability distribution is closely approximated by an exponential, rather than a Gaussian. We determine the amplitude and shape of this exponential for various cosmological models and aperture sizes, and show that wide-field imaging surveys can be used to distinguish between some of the currently most popular cosmogonies. Our study here is complementary to earlier cosmic-shear investigations which focussed more on two-point statistical properties.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures, submitted to MNRA

    Development of intuitive rules: Evaluating the application of the dual-system framework to understanding children's intuitive reasoning

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    This is an author-created version of this article. The original source of publication is Psychon Bull Rev. 2006 Dec;13(6):935-53 The final publication is available at www.springerlink.com Published version: http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF0321390