561 research outputs found

    Crystal structure of N-[(1S,2S)-2-aminocyclohexyl]-2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonamide

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    The title compound, C15H24N2O2S, was synthesized via a substitution reaction between the enanti­opure (1S,2S)-(+)-1,2-di­amino­cyclo­hexane and 2,4,6-tri­methyl­benzene-1-sulfonyl chloride. The cyclo­hexyl and phenyl substituents are oriented gauche around the sulfonamide S-N bond. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via N-HN hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [100]

    Crystal Structure of a Polysamarium (III) Nitrate Chain Crosslinked by a Di-CMPO Ligand

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    In the title compound poly[aqua­bis­(-nitrato-4O,O\u27:O,O\u27\u27)tetra­kis­(nitrato-2O,O\u27){4-tetra­ethyl [(ethane-1,2-diyl)bis(aza­nedi­yl)bis­(2-oxo­ethane-2,1-di­yl)]di­phospho­nate-2O,O\u27}disamarium(III)], [Sm2(NO3)6(C14H30N2O8P2)(H2O)]n, a 12-coordinate SmIII and a nine-coordinate SmIII cation are alternately linked via shared bis-bidentate nitrate anions into a corrugated chain extending parallel to the a axis. The nine-coordinate SmIII atom of this chain is also chelated by a bidentate, yet flexible, carbamoyl­methyl­phoshine oxide (CMPO) ligand and bears one water mol­ecule. This water mol­ecule is hydrogen bonded to nitrate groups bonded to the 12-coordinate SmIII cation. The CMPO ligand, which lies about an inversion center, links neighboring chains along the c axis, forming sheets parallel to the ac plane. Hydrogen bonds between the amide NH group and metal-bound nitrate anions are also present in these sheets. The sheets are packed along the b axis through only van der Waals inter­actions

    Emergency Medicine Research—A Time to Celebrate, Contemplate, and Propagate

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/72332/1/j.1553-2712.2001.tb00167.x.pd

    Major surgery leads to a proinflammatory phenotype: differential gene expression following a laparotomy

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    Background: The trauma of surgery is a neglected area of research. Our aim was to examine the differential expression of genes of stress, metabolism and inflammation in the major organs of a rat following a laparotomy. Materials and methods: Anaesthetised Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into baseline, 6-hr and 3-day groups (n = 6 each), catheterised and laparotomy performed. Animals were sacrificed at each timepoint and tissues collected for gene and protein analysis. Blood stress hormones, cytokines, endothelial injury markers and coagulation were measured. Results: Stress hormone corticosterone significantly increased and was accompanied by significant increases in inflammatory cytokines, endothelial markers, increased neutrophils (6-hr), higher lactate (3-days), and coagulopathy. In brain, there were significant increases in M1 muscarinic (31-fold) and ι-1A-adrenergic (39-fold) receptor expression. Cortical expression of metabolic genes increased ∟3-fold, and IL-1β by 6-fold at 3-days. Cardiac β-1-adrenergic receptor expression increased up to 8.4-fold, and M2 and M1 muscarinic receptors by 2 to 4-fold (6-hr). At 3-days, cardiac mitochondrial gene expression (Tfam, Mtco3) and inflammation (IL-1ι, IL-4, IL-6, MIP-1ι, MCP-1) were significantly elevated. Haemodynamics remained stable. In liver, there was a dramatic suppression of adrenergic and muscarinic receptor expression (up to 90%) and increased inflammation. Gut also underwent autonomic suppression with 140-fold increase in IL-1β expression (3-days). Conclusions: A single laparotomy led to a surgical-induced proinflammatory phenotype involving neuroendocrine stress, cortical excitability, immune activation, metabolic changes and coagulopathy. The pervasive nature of systemic and tissue inflammation was noteworthy. There is an urgent need for new therapies to prevent hyper-inflammation and restore homeostasis following major surgery

    Kallikrein-1 blockade inhibits aortic expansion in a mouse model and reduces prostaglandin E2 secretion from human aortic aneurysm explants

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    Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of mortality in older adults. The kinin B2 receptor agonist, bradykinin, has been implicated in AAA pathogenesis through promoting inflammation. Bradykinin is generated from high- and low-molecular-weight kininogen by the serine protease kallikrein-1. The aims of this study were first to examine the effect of neutralizing kallikrein-1 on AAA development in a mouse model and second to test how blocking kallikrein-1 affected cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in human AAA explants. Methods and Results: Neutralization of kallikrein-1 in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice via administration of a blocking antibody inhibited suprarenal aorta expansion in response to angiotensin (Ang) II infusion. Kallikrein-1 neutralization decreased suprarenal aorta concentrations of bradykinin and prostaglandin E2 and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 activity. Kallikrein-1 neutralization also decreased protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and reduced levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Kallikrein-1 blocking antibody reduced levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and secretion of prostaglandin E2 and active matrix metalloproteinase 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 from human AAA explants and vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to activated neutrophils. Conclusions: These findings suggest that kallikrein-1 neutralization could be a treatment target for AAA

    Factor XII blockade inhibits aortic dilatation in angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

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    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of mortality in older adults. Chronic inflammation and excessive matrix remodelling are considered important in AAA pathogenesis. Kinins are bioactive peptides important in regulating inflammation. Stimulation of the kinin B2 receptor has been previously reported to promote AAA development and rupture in a mouse model. The endogenous B2 receptor agonist, bradykinin, is generated from the kallikrein-kinin system following activation of plasma kallikrein by Factor XII (FXII). In the current study whole-body FXII deletion, or neutralisation of activated FXII (FXIIa), inhibited expansion of the suprarenal aorta (SRA) of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice in response to angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. FXII deficiency or FXIIa neutralisation led to decreased aortic tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE/a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (aka tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme) (ADAM-17)) activity, plasma kallikrein concentration, and epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation compared with controls. FXII deficiency or neutralisation also reduced Akt1 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation and decreased expression and levels of active matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp)-2 and Mmp-9. The findings suggest that FXII, kallikrein, ADAM-17, and EGFR are important molecular mediators by which AngII induces aneurysm in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. This could be a novel pathway to target in the design of drugs to limit AAA progression

    Balancing Ethical Goals in Challenging Individual Participant Scenarios Occurring in a Trial Conducted with Exception from Informed Consent

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    In 1996, federal regulations were put into effect that allowed enrollment of critically ill or injured patients into Food and Drug Administration (FDA)‐regulated clinical trials using an exception from informed consent (EFIC) under narrowly prescribed research circumstances. Despite the low likelihood that a legally authorized representative (LAR) would be present within the interventional time frame, the EFIC regulations require the availability of an informed consent process, to be applied if an LAR is present and able to provide prospective consent for patient enrollment into the trial. The purpose of this article is to describe a series of unanticipated consent‐related questions arising when a potential surrogate decision‐maker appeared to be available at the time of patient enrollment into a trial proceeding under EFIC.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/110828/1/acem12602.pd

    When Programs Collide: A Panel Report on the Competing Interests of Analytics and Security

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    The increasing demand for business analytics and cybersecurity professionals provides an exciting job outlook for graduates of information systems programs. However, the rapid proliferation of devices and systems that spurred this trend has created a challenging ethical dilemma for the individuals responsible for educating future generations of information technology professionals. Many firms collect and store as much data as possible in the hope that technology might uncover useful insights in the future. This behavior results in an ever-increasing challenge for those charged with protecting organizational assets and exerts pressure on executives seeking an analytical edge to remain profitable in a hyper-competitive marketplace. With this dilemma in mind, a recent panel discussion at the 14th Annual Midwest Association for Information Systems Conference explored the delicate balance between unleashing the power of analytics and securing the sensitive data it consumes while respecting consumer privacy. This paper reports on that discussion and its insights

    Parenteral administration of factor Xa/IIa inhibitors limits experimental aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis

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    Intraluminal thrombus is a consistent feature of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Coagulation factor Xa (FXa) catalyses FII to thrombin (FIIa). We examined the effect of FXa/FIIa inhibition on experimental aortic aneurysm in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice infused with angiotensin II (AngII). The concentration of FXa within the supra-renal aorta (SRA) correlated positively with SRA diameter. Parenteral administration of enoxaparin (FXa/IIa inhibitor) and fondaparinux (FXa inhibitor) over 14 days reduced to severity of aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis in AngII-infused ApoE−/− mice. Enteral administration of the FIIa inhibitor dabigatran had no significant effect. Aortic protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 expression increased in response to AngII infusion. Fondaparinux reduced SRA levels of FXa, FIIa, PAR-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, Smad2/3 phosphorylation,and MOMA-2 positive cells in the mouse model. FXa stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and MMP2 expression in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro. Expression of MMP2 in FXastimulated VSMC was downregulated in the presence of a PAR-2 but not a PAR-1 inhibitor. These findings suggest that FXa/FIIa inhibition limits aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis severity due to down-regulation of vascular PAR-2-mediated Smad2/3 signalling and MMP2 expression. Inhibition of FXa/FIIa may be a potential therapy for limiting aortic aneurysm

    Meta-Analysis of the Association between Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Polymorphisms and Complications of Coronary Heart Disease

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    Objective: To investigate the association between common transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and significant complications of coronary heart disease (CHD).\ud \ud Method: We performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies assessing the association of TGF-β SNPs with a range of CHD complications. A random effects model was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Analyses were conducted for additive, dominant and recessive modes of inheritance.\ud \ud Results: Six studies involving 5535 cases and 2970 controls examining the association of common SNPs in TGF-β1 with CHD were identified. Applying a dominant model of inheritance, three TGF-β1 SNPs were significantly associated with CHD complications: The T alleles of rs1800469 (OR = 1.125, 95% CI 1.016–1.247, p = 0.031) and rs1800470 (OR = 1.146, 95% CI 1.026–1.279, p = 0.021); and the C allele of rs1800471 (OR = 1.207, 95% CI 1.037–1.406, p = 0.021).\ud \ud Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that common genetic polymorphisms in TGF-β1 are associated with complications of CHD
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