191 research outputs found

    2. Wochenbericht POS507

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    FS Poseidon Reise 507 - Sedimenttransport im Landsort Tief und die holozäne Paläozeanographie der zentralen Ostsee, Warnemünde - Warnemünde (15.10.-02.11.2016

    1. Wochenbericht POS507

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    FS Poseidon Reise 507 - Sedimenttransport im Landsort Tief und die holozäne Paläozeanographie der zentralen Ostsee, Warnemünde - Warnemünde (15.10.-02.11.2016

    Late Quaternary terrigenous sediment supply in the Drake Passage in response to Patagonian and Antarctic ice dynamics

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    The Drake Passage, as the narrowest passage around Antarctica, exerts significant influences on the physical, chemical, and biological interactions between the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. Here, we identify terrigenous sediment sources and transport pathways in the Drake Passage region over the past 140 ka BP (thousand years before present), based on grain size, clay mineral assemblages, geochemistry and mass-specific magnetic susceptibility records. Terrigenous sediment supply in the Drake Passage is mainly derived from the southeast Pacific, southern South America and the Antarctic Peninsula. Our results provide robust evidence that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) has served as the key driver for sediment dispersal in the Drake Passage. High glacial mass accumulation rates indicate enhanced detrital input, which was closely linked to a large expansion of ice sheets in southern South America and on the Antarctic Peninsula during the glacial maximum, as significantly advanced glaciers eroded more glaciogenic sediments from the continental hinterlands into the Drake Passage. Moreover, lower glacial sea levels exposed large continental shelves, which together with weakened ACC strength likely amplified the efficiency of sediment supply and deposition in the deep ocean. In contrast, significant glaciers' shrinkage during interglacials, together with higher sea-level conditions and storage of sediment in nearby fjords reduced terrigenous sediment inputs. Furthermore, a stronger ACC may have induced winnowing effects and further lowered the mass accumulation rates. Evolution of ice sheets, sea level changes and climate related ACC dynamic have thus exerted critical influences on the terrigenous sediment supply and deposition in the Drake Passage region over the last glacial-interglacial cycle

    Variations in export production, lithogenic sediment transport and iron fertilization in the Pacific sector of the Drake Passage over the past 400 kyr

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    Changes in Southern Ocean export production have broad biogeochemical and climatic implications. Specifically, iron fertilization likely increased subantarctic nutrient utilization and enhanced the efficiency of the biological pump during glacials. However, past export production in the subantarctic southeastern Pacific is poorly documented, and its connection to Fe fertilization, potentially related to Patagonian Ice Sheet dynamics, is unknown. We report biological productivity changes over the past 400 kyr, based on a combination of 230Thxs-normalized and stratigraphy-based mass accumulation rates of biogenic barium, organic carbon, biogenic opal and calcium carbonate as indicators of paleo-export production in a sediment core upstream of the Drake Passage (57.5∘ S, 70.3∘ W). In addition, we use fluxes of iron and lithogenic material as proxies for terrigenous input, and thus potential micronutrient supply. Stratigraphy-based mass accumulation rates are strongly influenced by bottom-current dynamics, which result in variable sediment focussing or winnowing at our site. Carbonate is virtually absent in the core, except during peak interglacial intervals of the Holocene, and Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5 and 11, likely caused by transient decreases in carbonate dissolution. All other proxies suggest that export production increased during most glacial periods, coinciding with high iron fluxes. Such augmented glacial iron fluxes at the core site were most likely derived from glaciogenic input from the Patagonian Ice Sheet promoting the growth of phytoplankton. Additionally, glacial export production peaks are also consistent with northward shifts of the Subantarctic and Polar Fronts, which positioned our site south of the Subantarctic Front and closer to silicic acid-rich waters of the Polar Frontal Zone. However, glacial export production near the Drake Passage was lower than in the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the Southern Ocean, which may relate to complete consumption of silicic acid in the study area. Our results underline the importance of micro-nutrient fertilization through lateral terrigenous input from South America rather than eolian transport and exemplify the role of frontal shifts and nutrient limitation for past productivity changes in the Pacific entrance to the Drake Passage

    Impact of the Major Baltic Inflow in 2014 on Manganese Cycling in the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea)

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    The deep basins of the Baltic Sea, including the Gotland and Landsort Deeps, are well-known for the exceptional occurrence of sedimentary Mn carbonate. Although the details of the mechanisms of Mn carbonate formation are still under debate, a close relationship with episodic major Baltic inflows (MBIs) is generally assumed, at least for the Gotland Basin. However, the few studies on Mn cycling during MBIs suffer from a limited temporal resolution. Here we report on Mn dynamics in the water column and sediments of the Gotland Deep following an MBI that entered the Baltic Sea in December 2014. Water column profiles of dissolved Mn were obtained at a monthly to bi-monthly resolution between February 2015 and March 2017 and revealed an impact of the MBI on the Gotland Deep bottom waters beginning in March 2015. Water column profiles and budget estimates provided evidence for remarkable losses of dissolved Mn associated with the enhanced deposition of Mn oxide particles, as documented in sediment trap samples and surface sediments. In July 2015, subsequent to the nearly full oxygenation of the water column, clear signals of the re-establishment of bottom water anoxia appeared, interrupted by a second inflow pulse around February 2016. However, dissolved Mn concentrations of up to 40 μM in the bottom waters in June 2016 again indicated a pronounced reduction of Mn oxide and the escape of dissolved Mn back into the open water column. The absence of substantial amounts of Mn carbonate in the surface sediments at the end of the observation period suggested that the duration of bottom water oxygenation plays an important role in the formation of this mineral. Data from both an instrumental time series and a dated sediment core from the Gotland Deep supported this conclusion. Enhanced Mn carbonate formation occurred especially between the 1960s and mid-1970s, when several MBIs caused a long-lasting oxygenation of the water column. By contrast, Mn carbonate layers were much less pronounced or even missing after single MBIs in 1993, 2003, and 2014, each of which provided a comparatively short-term supply of O2 to the deeper water column

    A 1500-year multiproxy record of coastal hypoxia from the northern Baltic Sea indicates unprecedented deoxygenation over the 20th century

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    The anthropogenically forced expansion of coastal hypoxia is a major environmental problem affecting coastal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles throughout the world. The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed shelf sea whose central deep basins have been highly prone to deoxygenation during its Holocene history, as shown previously by numerous paleoenvironmental studies. However, long-term data on past fluctuations in the intensity of hypoxia in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea are largely lacking, despite the significant role of these areas in retaining nutrients derived from the catchment. Here we present a 1500-year multiproxy record of near-bottom water redox changes from the coastal zone of the northern Baltic Sea, encompassing the climatic phases of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the Little Ice Age (LIA), and the Modern Warm Period (MoWP). Our reconstruction shows that although multicentennial climate variability has modulated the depositional conditions and delivery of organic matter (OM) to the basin the modern aggravation of coastal hypoxia is unprecedented and, in addition to gradual changes in the basin configuration, it must have been forced by excess human-induced nutrient loading. Alongside the anthropogenic nutrient input, the progressive deoxygenation since the beginning of the 1900s was fueled by the combined effects of gradual shoaling of the basin and warming climate, which amplified sediment focusing and increased the vulnerability to hypoxia. Importantly, the eutrophication of coastal waters in our study area began decades earlier than previously thought, leading to a marked aggravation of hypoxia in the 1950s. We find no evidence of similar anthropogenic forcing during the MCA. These results have implications for the assessment of reference conditions for coastal water quality. Furthermore, this study highlights the need for combined use of sedimentological, ichnological, and geochemical proxies in order to robustly reconstruct subtle redox shifts especially in dynamic, non-euxinic coastal settings with strong seasonal contrasts in the bottom water quality.Peer reviewe

    Late Holocene current patterns in the northern Patagonian fjords recorded by sediment drifts in Aysén Fjord

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    Present-day circulation patterns in the southeastern Pacific Ocean are driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, directing subantarctic surface water into the Patagonian fjords since at least the early Holocene. In this way, bottom current patterns in the area are regulated by the regional climate, although the complex bathymetry of the fjords has a significant impact as well. To understand the potential interplay of climate, seafloor topography and circulation patterns, we study the sedimentary infill of Aysén Fjord (~45°S) and reveal the first active sediment drifts in the region. These allow constraining the present-day circulation patterns in northern Patagonia and show an incoming (southward) as well as returning (northward) flow direction. While the general sedimentary evolution of the fjord (and thus also the sediment drifts) is climate-driven (i.e., it reflects variability in southern westerly wind strength), the onset of drift formation at ~3.7 ka does not seem to have originated from an abrupt change in regional climate. Instead, we propose that a megathrust earthquake described in paleoseismic records in the area could have resulted in subsidence of one (or more) of the many bathymetric highs in the Patagonian fjords, thus contributing to enhanced spilling of subantarctic water into the fjord. This study underscores the importance of multidisciplinary research to understand past and present bottom current circulation patterns and disentangle different possible feedback mechanisms

    Upper ocean temperature characteristics in the subantarctic Southeast Pacific based on biomarker reconstructions

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    Alkenones and Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraether lipids (GDGT) as remnants of living organisms are widely used biomarkers for determining past oceans&rsquo; water temperatures. The organisms these proxy carriers stem from, are influenced by a number of environmental parameters, such as water depth, nutrient availability, light conditions or seasonality, which all may significantly bias the calibration to ambient water temperatures. Reliable temperature determinations remain thus challenging, especially in higher latitudes and for under-sampled regions. We analyzed 33 sediment surface samples from the Southern Chilean continental margin and the Drake Passage for alkenones and GDGTs and compared the results with gridded instrumental reference data from the World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05), as well as previously published data from an extended study area covering the Central and Western South Pacific towards the New Zealand continental margin. We show that for alkenone-derived SSTs, the widely-used global core-top calibration of M&uuml;ller et al. (1998) yields the smallest residuals, whereas the calibration of Sikes et al. (1997), adapted to higher latitudes and supposed to show summer SSTs, overestimates modern WOA05-based (summer and annual mean) SSTs. Our alkenone SSTs show a slight seasonal shift of ~1 &deg;C at the Southern Chilean Margin and up to ~2 &deg;C in the Drake Passage towards austral summer SSTs, whereas samples in the Central South Pacific reflect an annual mean signal. We show that for GDGT-based temperatures, a more complex pattern emerges. In areas north of the Subantarctic Front (SAF) the subsurface calibration of Kim et al. (2012a) best reflects temperatures from the WOA05, largely within the margin error of &plusmn;2.2 &deg;C. Temperatures south of the SAF instead are significantly overestimated by up to 14 &deg;C, irrespective of the applied calibration. Based on a qualitative assessment of the GDGT [2] / [3]-ratios, which likely indicate water depth of origin, our samples reflect a subsurface (0 to 200 m water depth) rather than a surface (0&ndash;50 m water depth) signal. The overestimation of surface and subsurface temperatures south of the SAF highlights the need for a re-assessment of existing calibrations in the polar Southern Ocean, and leads to limitations in reliably both obtaining absolute values and assessing relative changes. Therefore, we suggest a modified Southern Ocean calibration for surface and subsurface GDGT-based temperatures, which shows a lower temperature sensitivity of the TEXL86 and yields principally lower absolute temperatures, which align more closely with WOA05-derived values.</p

    Effect of large magnetotactic bacteria with polyphosphate inclusions on the phosphate profile of the suboxic zone in the Black Sea

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    The Black Sea is the world’s largest anoxic basin and a model system for studying processes across redox gradients. In between the oxic surface and the deeper sulfidic waters there is an unusually broad layer of 10–40 m, where neither oxygen nor sulfide are detectable. In this suboxic zone, dissolved phosphate profiles display a pronounced minimum at the upper and a maximum at the lower boundary, with a peak of particulate phosphorus in between, which was suggested to be caused by the sorption of phosphate on sinking particles of metal oxides. Here we show that bacterial polyphosphate inclusions within large magnetotactic bacteria related to the genus Magnetococcus contribute substantially to the observed phosphorus peak, as they contain 26–34% phosphorus compared to only 1–5% in metal-rich particles. Furthermore, we found increased gene expression for polyphosphate kinases by several groups of bacteria including Magnetococcaceae at the phosphate maximum, indicating active bacterial polyphosphate degradation. We propose that large magnetotactic bacteria shuttle up and down within the suboxic zone, scavenging phosphate at the upper and releasing it at the lower boundary. In contrast to a passive transport via metal oxides, this bacterial transport can quantitatively explain the observed phosphate profiles.We are grateful for the competent technical assistance of Ronny Baaske, Christian Burmeister, Christin Laudan and Christian Meeske. We are greatly indebted to Cindy Lee and Bo Barker Jørgensen for providing extremely helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. Horst D. Schulz and René Friedland are acknowledged for stimulating discussions on the modeling approach. We thank the captain and the crew of the R/V “Maria S. Merian” for the excellent support on board and the DFG (MSM33) and BMBF (01DK12043) for financing the cruise. The particle analysis was funded by the BMBF (03F0663A). S.B. was funded by a BONUS BLUEPRINT project (03F0679A awarded to KJ; http://blueprint- project.org), supported by BONUS (Art 185), funded jointly by the EU and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). T. S. was funded by the German research foundation (DFG) (awarded to K.J., JU 367/16-1). Metagenome sequencing was done at the Swedish National Genomics Infrastructure (NGI) at SciLifeLab (Sweden).We are grateful for the competent technical assistance of Ronny Baaske, Christian Burmeister, Christin Laudan and Christian Meeske. We are greatly indebted to Cindy Lee and Bo Barker Jørgensen for providing extremely helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. Horst D. Schulz and René Friedland are acknowledged for stimulating discussions on the modeling approach. We thank the captain and the crew of the R/V “Maria S. Merian” for the excellent support on board and the DFG (MSM33) and BMBF (01DK12043) for financing the cruise. The particle analysis was funded by the BMBF (03F0663A). S.B. was funded by a BONUS BLUEPRINT project (03F0679A awarded to KJ; http://blueprint- project.org), supported by BONUS (Art 185), funded jointly by the EU and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). T. S. was funded by the German research foundation (DFG) (awarded to K.J., JU 367/16-1). Metagenome sequencing was done at the Swedish National Genomics Infrastructure (NGI) at SciLifeLab (Sweden)
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