25,836 research outputs found

    Intensity of Vascular Streak Dieback in Different Cocoa Clones and Various Agro-climatic Conditions

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    Vascular streak dieback (VSD) is one of the main diseases on cocoa. This disease can produce a heavy damage in susceptible plants. Agro-climatic condition influences the VSD disease severity level. A study on the relationship between agro-climatic condition and VSD disease severity was conducted in eight locations which were selected based on difference in agro-climatic conditions including altitude, rainfall, number of wet, and dry months. Randomized complete block design was used consisting of eight agro-climatic conditions as treatments which consisted of 200 trees samples, and scored for VSD intensity. A study was also conducted on the response of cocoa clones with different level of resistance at different altitude at Kendeng Lembu, Jatirono, Sungai Lembu, Banjarsari, and Sumber Asin Plantations. A split plot design was applied consisting of two factors. The first factor was location including Pager Gunung (highland) and Besaran (lowland). The second factor was clone resistance with two levels: PA 191 (resistant) and BL 703 (susceptible). VSD scores and stomatal characteristics (stomata number, stomata diameter, and stomata aperture) were determined. The results of experiment showed that VSD scoring differed significantly between the eight agro-climatic conditions. The highest VSD score occurred in the lowland (Gereng Rejo, Banjarsari Plantation, 38 m asl.), where the average annual rainfall was 2161 mm, with five dry months. Cocoa trees in Sumber Asin (580 m asl.), with the average annual rainfall of 2302 mm and 8.5 wet months/3.5 dry months were mostly free of VSD disease. Altitude was positively correlated with rainfall, and negatively correlated with VSD severity. Number of wet months was negatively correlated with VSD severity. Conversely, number of dry months was positively correlated with VSD. The result indicated that genotype, environment, or their interaction did not significantly affect number and aperture of stomata. Although stomatal diameter was significantly affected by environment, genotypes or their interaction with environment did not influence this character

    Imaginative Value Sensitive Design: How Moral Imagination Exceeds Moral Law Theories in Informing Responsible Innovation

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    Safe-by-Design (SBD) frameworks for the development of emerging technologies have become an ever more popular means by which scholars argue that transformative emerging technologies can safely incorporate human values. One such popular SBD methodology is called Value Sensitive Design (VSD). A central tenet of this design methodology is to investigate stakeholder values and design those values into technologies during early stage research and development (R&D). To accomplish this, the VSD framework mandates that designers consult the philosophical and ethical literature to best determine how to weigh moral trade-offs. However, the VSD framework also concedes the universalism of moral values, particularly the values of freedom, autonomy, equality trust and privacy justice. This paper argues that the VSD methodology, particularly applied to nano-bio-info-cogno (NBIC) technologies, has an insufficient grounding for the determination of moral values. As such, an exploration of the value-investigations of VSD are deconstructed to illustrate both its strengths and weaknesses. This paper also provides possible modalities for the strengthening of the VSD methodology, particularly through the application of moral imagination and how moral imagination exceed the boundaries of moral intuitions in the development of novel technologies

    Nkx2-5 and Sarcospan genetically interact in the development of the muscular ventricular septum of the heart

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    The muscular ventricular septum separates the flow of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood in air-breathing vertebrates. Defects within it, termed muscular ventricular septal defects (VSDs), are common, yet less is known about how they arise than rarer heart defects. Mutations of the cardiac transcription factor NKX2-5 cause cardiac malformations, including muscular VSDs. We describe here a genetic interaction between Nkx2-5 and Sarcospan (Sspn) that affects the risk of muscular VSD in mice. Sspn encodes a protein in the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Sspn knockout (Sspn(KO)) mice do not have heart defects, but Nkx2-5(+/−)/Sspn(KO) mutants have a higher incidence of muscular VSD than Nkx2-5(+/−) mice. Myofibers in the ventricular septum follow a stereotypical pattern that is disrupted around a muscular VSD. Subendocardial myofibers normally run in parallel along the left ventricular outflow tract, but in the Nkx2-5(+/−)/Sspn(KO) mutant they commonly deviate into the septum even in the absence of a muscular VSD. Thus, Nkx2-5 and Sspn act in a pathway that affects the alignment of myofibers during the development of the ventricular septum. The malalignment may be a consequence of a defect in the coalescence of trabeculae into the developing ventricular septum, which has been hypothesized to be the mechanistic basis of muscular VSDs

    Spontaneous resolution of atrial and ventricular septal defects in Malta

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    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the commonest congenital malformation, and ventricular septal defect (VSD) and atrial septal defect (ASD) are the commonest forms of CHD. This study was undertaken to determine rates or spontaneous closure or lesions diagnosed at echocardiography after detection or a murmur in Maltese patients born in 1990-94. A significant excess or ASD and VSD was found in Malta, and this was attributed to early echocardiographic diagnosis or small defects, prior to spontaneous closure. A high spontaneous closure rate was round for both ASD and VSD. Rate of closure for both defects was initially high, and tapered off at about 5 to 7 years or age for both lesions. ASDs in excess of 8 mm in diameter at presentation also underwent spontaneous resolution, which is contrary to the known natural history or these defects. Larger VSDs were shown to have a smaller likelihood or closing (p=0.04). Parents and patients can be reassured that spontaneous closure is very likely to occur in the vast majority of these conditions.peer-reviewe

    The Visual Social Distancing Problem

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    One of the main and most effective measures to contain the recent viral outbreak is the maintenance of the so-called Social Distancing (SD). To comply with this constraint, workplaces, public institutions, transports and schools will likely adopt restrictions over the minimum inter-personal distance between people. Given this actual scenario, it is crucial to massively measure the compliance to such physical constraint in our life, in order to figure out the reasons of the possible breaks of such distance limitations, and understand if this implies a possible threat given the scene context. All of this, complying with privacy policies and making the measurement acceptable. To this end, we introduce the Visual Social Distancing (VSD) problem, defined as the automatic estimation of the inter-personal distance from an image, and the characterization of the related people aggregations. VSD is pivotal for a non-invasive analysis to whether people comply with the SD restriction, and to provide statistics about the level of safety of specific areas whenever this constraint is violated. We then discuss how VSD relates with previous literature in Social Signal Processing and indicate which existing Computer Vision methods can be used to manage such problem. We conclude with future challenges related to the effectiveness of VSD systems, ethical implications and future application scenarios.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures. All the authors equally contributed to this manuscript and they are listed by alphabetical order. Under submissio

    Investigating the Effect of Water Contamination on Gearbox Lubrication based on Motor Control Data from a Sensorless Drive

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    Water is one of the most significant destructive contaminations to lubricants which in turn lead to more power consumption and early damage to rotating machines. This study explores the effect of water contents in gearbox lube oil on the responses of electrical supply parameters. A two stage gearbox based mechanical transmission system driven by a sensorless variable speed drive (VSD) is utilised to investigate experimentally any measurable changes in these signals that can be correlated with water contamination levels. Results show that the supply parameters obtained from both external measurements and the VSD control data can be correlated to the contamination levels of oil with water and hence can be based on for an instant diagnosis of water contamination. Particularly, the voltage and hence the power responses are more sensitive to the water contents than that of current because the VSD regulates more the voltage to adapt the small load changes due to the water induced lubrication degradation. Simultaneously, vibration also shows changes which agree with that of power supply parameters