155,749 research outputs found

    Redox-Active Nanomaterials For Nanomedicine Applications

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    Nanomedicine utilizes the remarkable properties of nanomaterials for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Many of these nanomaterials have been shown to have robust antioxidative properties, potentially functioning as strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species. Conversely, several nanomaterials have also been shown to promote the generation of reactive oxygen species, which may precipitate the onset of oxidative stress, a state that is thought to contribute to the development of a variety of adverse conditions. As such, the impacts of nanomaterials on biological entities are often associated with and influenced by their specific redox properties. In this review, we overview several classes of nanomaterials that have been or projected to be used across a wide range of biomedical applications, with discussion focusing on their unique redox properties. Nanomaterials examined include iron, cerium, and titanium metal oxide nanoparticles, gold, silver, and selenium nanoparticles, and various nanoscale carbon allotropes such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and their derivatives/variations. Principal topics of discussion include the chemical mechanisms by which the nanomaterials directly interact with biological entities and the biological cascades that are thus indirectly impacted. Selected case studies highlighting the redox properties of nanomaterials and how they affect biological responses are used to exemplify the biologically-relevant redox mechanisms for each of the described nanomaterials

    Nanomaterials for Healthcare Biosensing Applications

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    In recent years, an increasing number of nanomaterials have been explored for their applications in biomedical diagnostics, making their applications in healthcare biosensing a rapidly evolving field. Nanomaterials introduce versatility to the sensing platforms and may even allow mobility between different detection mechanisms. The prospect of a combination of different nanomaterials allows an exploitation of their synergistic additive and novel properties for sensor development. This paper covers more than 290 research works since 2015, elaborating the diverse roles played by various nanomaterials in the biosensing field. Hence, we provide a comprehensive review of the healthcare sensing applications of nanomaterials, covering carbon allotrope-based, inorganic, and organic nanomaterials. These sensing systems are able to detect a wide variety of clinically relevant molecules, like nucleic acids, viruses, bacteria, cancer antigens, pharmaceuticals and narcotic drugs, toxins, contaminants, as well as entire cells in various sensing media, ranging from buffers to more complex environments such as urine, blood or sputum. Thus, the latest advancements reviewed in this paper hold tremendous potential for the application of nanomaterials in the early screening of diseases and point-of-care testing

    Understanding cellular internalization pathways of silicon nanowires

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    BACKGROUND: Understanding how cells interact with nanomaterials is important for rational design of nanomaterials for nanomedicine and transforming them for clinical applications. Particularly, the mechanism for one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials with high aspect ratios still remains unclear. RESULTS: In this work, we present amine-functionalized silicon nanowires (SiNW-NH2) entering CHO-β cells via a physical membrane wrapping mechanism. By utilizing optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal fluorescence microscopy, we successfully visualized the key steps of internalization of SiNW-NH2 into cells. CONCLUSION: Our results provide insight into the interaction between 1D nanomaterials and confirm that these materials can be used for understanding membrane mechanics through physical stress exerted on the membrane

    Surface disinfections: present and future

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    The propagation of antibiotic resistance increases the chances of major infections for patients during hospitalization and the spread of health related diseases. Therefore finding new and effective solutions to prevent the proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms is critical, in order to protect hospital environment, such as the surfaces of biomedical devices. Modern nanotechnology has proven to be an effective countermeasure to tackle the threat of infections. On this note, recent scientific breakthroughs have demonstrated that antimicrobial nanomaterials are effective in preventing pathogens from developing resistance. Despite the ability to destroy a great deal of bacteria and control the outbreak of infections, nanomaterials present many other advantages. Moreover, it is unlikely for nanomaterials to develop resistance due to their multiple and simultaneous bactericidal mechanisms. In recent years, science has explored more complex antimicrobial coatings and nanomaterials based on graphene have shown great potential in antibacterial treatment. The purpose of this article is to deepen the discussion on the threat of infections related to surface disinfection and to assess the state of the art and potential solutions, with specific focus on disinfection procedures using nanomaterials

    Uncertainties of size measurements in electron microscopy characterization of nanomaterials in foods

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    Electron microscopy is a recognized standard tool for nanomaterial characterization, and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for the size measurement of nanomaterials in food. Despite this, little data have been published assessing the reliability of the method, especially for size measurement of nanomaterials characterized by a broad size distribution and/or added to food matrices. This study is a thorough investigation of the measurement uncertainty when applying electron microscopy for size measurement of engineered nanomaterials in foods. Our results show that the number of measured particles was only a minor source of measurement uncertainty for nanomaterials in food, compared to the combined influence of sampling, sample preparation prior to imaging and the image analysis. The main conclusion is that to improve the measurement reliability, care should be taken to consider replications and matrix removal prior to sample preparation

    PEG Branched Polymer for Functionalization of Nanomaterials with Ultralong Blood Circulation

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    Nanomaterials have been actively pursued for biological and medical applications in recent years. Here, we report the synthesis of several new poly(ethylene glycol) grafted branched-polymers for functionalization of various nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles (NP) and gold nanorods (NRs), affording high aqueous solubility and stability for these materials. We synthesize different surfactant polymers based upon poly-(g-glutamic acid) (gPGA) and poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMHC18). We use the abundant free carboxylic acid groups of gPGA for attaching lipophilic species such as pyrene or phospholipid, which bind to nanomaterials via robust physisorption. Additionally, the remaining carboxylic acids on gPGA or the amine-reactive anhydrides of PMHC18 are then PEGylated, providing extended hydrophilic groups, affording polymeric amphiphiles. We show that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), Au NPs and NRs functionalized by the polymers exhibit high stability in aqueous solutions at different pHs, at elevated temperatures and in serum. Morever, the polymer-coated SWNTs exhibit remarkably long blood circulation (t1/2 22.1 h) upon intravenous injection into mice, far exceeding the previous record of 5.4 h. The ultra-long blood circulation time suggests greatly delayed clearance of nanomaterials by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of mice, a highly desired property for in vivo applications of nanomaterials, including imaging and drug delivery

    2D Saturable Absorbers for Fibre Lasers

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    © 2015.Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are an emergent and promising platform for future photonic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review recent progress demonstrating the application of 2D nanomaterials as versatile, wideband saturable absorbers for Q-switching and mode-locking fibre lasers. We focus specifically on the family of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, including MoS2, MoSe2 and WS2