269,194 research outputs found

    Applications of Essential Oils as Antibacterial Agents in Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables - A Review

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    Microbial foodborne diseases are a major health concern. In this regard, one of the major risk factors is related to consumer preferences for “ready-to-eat” or minimally processed (MP) fruits and vegetables. Essential oil (EO) is a viable alternative used to reduce pathogenic bacteria and increase the shelf-life of MP foods, due to the health risks associated with food chlorine. Indeed, there has been increased interest in using EO in fresh produce. However, more information about EO applications in MP foods is necessary. For instance, although in vitro tests have defined EO as a valuable antimicrobial agent, its practical use in MP foods can be hampered by unrealistic concentrations, as most studies focus on growth reductions instead of bactericidal activity, which, in the case of MP foods, is of utmost importance. The present review focuses on the effects of EO in MP food pathogens, including the more realistic applications. Overall, due to this type of information, EO could be better regarded as an added value to the food industryinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    A culture collection of Maltese microorganisms for application in biotechnology, biomedicine and industry

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    Over the years, very few studies have been conducted on microorganisms growing in the Maltese islands, and these have rarely resulted in the description of new gen- era, species or serovars. Two important exceptions are the studies on Brucella melitensis, by Sir Temi Zammit in 1905 (Wyatt, 2005) and a new serovar of Salmonella from Gozo (Vella & Cuschieri, 1995). Ten years ago, sampling of microorganisms growing as bio lms on di erent substrates around the Maltese islands was initiated. The microorganisms consisted mainly of chemoorganotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria and microalgae. Today the culture collection of Maltese microorganisms contains over a hundred new microbial strains that are new to science and which include fresh- water, marine, soil and subaerophytic microorganisms. The aim of the research is twofold. Firstly, it is im- portant to characterise the Maltese microbial strains and describe new taxa as required. Secondly, the ex- traction of important metabolites for application in bi- otechnology, biomedicine and industrypeer-reviewe

    The rhizosphere: a playground and battlefield for soilborne pathogens and beneficial microorganisms

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    The rhizosphere is a hot spot of microbial interactions as exudates released by plant roots are a main food source for microorganisms and a driving force of their population density and activities. The rhizosphere harbors many organisms that have a neutral effect on the plant, but also attracts organisms that exert deleterious or beneficial effects on the plant. Microorganisms that adversely affect plant growth and health are the pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, bacteria and nematodes. Most of the soilborne pathogens are adapted to grow and survive in the bulk soil, but the rhizosphere is the playground and infection court where the pathogen establishes a parasitic relationship with the plant. The rhizosphere is also a battlefield where the complex rhizosphere community, both microflora and microfauna, interact with pathogens and influence the outcome of pathogen infection. A wide range of microorganisms are beneficial to the plant and include nitrogen-fixing bacteria, endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi, and plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi. This review focuses on the population dynamics and activity of soilborne pathogens and beneficial microorganisms. Specific attention is given to mechanisms involved in the tripartite interactions between beneficial microorganisms, pathogens and the plant. We also discuss how agricultural practices affect pathogen and antagonist populations and how these practices can be adopted to promote plant growth and health

    Protective Microbiota: From Localized to Long-Reaching Co-Immunity

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    Resident microbiota do not just shape host immunity, they can also contribute to host protection against pathogens and infectious diseases. Previous reviews of the protective roles of the microbiota have focused exclusively on colonization resistance localized within a microenvironment. This review shows that the protection against pathogens also involves the mitigation of pathogenic impact without eliminating the pathogens (i.e., “disease tolerance”) and the containment of microorganisms to prevent pathogenic spread. Protective microorganisms can have an impact beyond their niche, interfering with the entry, establishment, growth, and spread of pathogenic microorganisms. More fundamentally, we propose a series of conceptual clarifications in support of the idea of a “co-immunity,” where an organism is protected by both its own immune system and components of its microbiota
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