26,947 research outputs found

    Calendar based contextual information as an Internet content pre-caching tool

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    Motivated by the need to access internet content on mobile devices with expensive or non-existent network access, this paper discusses the possibility for contextual information extracted from electronic calendars to be used as sources for Internet content predictive retrieval (pre-caching). Our results show that calendar based contextual information is useful for this purpose and that calendar based information can produce web queries that are relevant to the users' task supportive information needs

    Design and development of Taeneb City Guide - from paper maps and guidebooks to electronic guides

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    This paper reports the design, development and feedback from the initial trial of the Taeneb City Guide project developing tourist information software on Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) handheld computers. Based on the users' requirements for electronic tourists guides already published in the literature, the paper focuses on the three main technology features of the systems, which would give the advantage over the existing paper publication: query-able dynamic map interface, dynamic information content and community review systems and users' forum. The paper also reports the results of an initial trial of a City Guide for Glasgow conducted as part of the EMAC 03 conference

    Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem in Current, Remitted, Recovered, and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety Disorders: The NESDA Study

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    BACKGROUND: Dual processing models of psychopathology emphasize the relevance of differentiating between deliberative self-evaluative processes (explicit self-esteem; ESE) and automatically-elicited affective self-associations (implicit self-esteem; ISE). It has been proposed that both low ESE and ISE would be involved in major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD). Further, it has been hypothesized that MDD and AD may result in a low ISE "scar" that may contribute to recurrence after remission. However, the available evidence provides no straightforward support for the relevance of low ISE in MDD/AD, and studies testing the relevance of discrepant SE even showed that especially high ISE combined with low ESE is predictive of the development of internalizing symptoms. However, these earlier findings have been limited by small sample sizes, poorly defined groups in terms of comorbidity and phase of the disorders, and by using inadequate indices of discrepant SE. Therefore, this study tested further the proposed role of ISE and discrepant SE in a large-scale study allowing for stricter differentiation between groups and phase of disorder. METHOD: In the context of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), we selected participants with current MDD (n = 60), AD (n = 111), and comorbid MDD/AD (n = 71), remitted MDD (n = 41), AD (n = 29), and comorbid MDD/AD (n = 14), recovered MDD (n = 136) and AD (n = 98), and never MDD or AD controls (n = 382). The Implicit Association Test was used to index ISE and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale indexed ESE. RESULTS: Controls reported higher ESE than all other groups, and current comorbid MDD/AD had lower ESE than all other clinical groups. ISE was only lower than controls in current comorbid AD/MDD. Discrepant self-esteem (difference between ISE and ESE) was not associated with disorder status once controlling for ESE. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design limits causal inferences. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest a prominent role for ESE in MDD and AD, while in comorbid MDD/AD negative self-evaluations are also present at the implicit level. There was no evidence to support the view that AD and MDD would result in a low ISE "scar"

    Structural and functional abnormities of amygdala and prefrontal cortex in major depressive disorder with suicide attempts

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    Finding neural features of suicide attempts (SA) in major depressive disorder (MDD) may be helpful in preventing suicidal behavior. The ventral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as the amygdala form a circuit implicated in emotion regulation and the pathogenesis of MDD. The aim of this study was to identify whether patients with MDD who had a history of SA show structural and functional connectivity abnormalities in the amygdala and PFC relative to MDD patients without a history of SA. We measured gray matter volume in the amygdala and PFC and amygdala-PFC functional connectivity using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 158 participants [38 MDD patients with a history of SA, 60 MDD patients without a history of SA, and 60 healthy control (HC)]. MDD patients with a history of SA had decreased gray matter volume in the right and left amygdala (F = 30.270, P = 0.000), ventral/medial/dorsal PFC (F = 15.349, P = 0.000), and diminished functional connectivity between the bilateral amygdala and ventral and medial PFC regions (F = 22.467, P = 0.000), compared with individuals who had MDD without a history of SA, and the HC group. These findings provide evidence that the amygdala and PFC may be closely related to the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior in MDD and implicate the amygdala-ventral/medial PFC circuit as a potential target for suicide intervention

    Human computer interaction with mobile devices (editorial for special edition)

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    The second international workshop on human-computer interaction with mobile devices took place on 30th August,1999 as part of the IFIP INTERACT '99 conference held in Edinburgh, UK. We had over 60 participants with an almost equal mix between academic and industrial attendees from within Europe, North America and Asia.The first workshop had been held in Glasgow the year before and was one of the first to bring together researchers interested in how to design usable interfaces for mobile computers. It was such a success that we decided to run another- this was obviously an area where there were many problems and many people looking for solutions. The growth of the mobile computing market is rapid. The take-up of mobile telephones and personal digital assistants has been dramatic - huge numbers of people now own a mobile device of some kind. But there are still big problems with usability - it is hard to design interfaces and interactions with devices that have small or no screens and limited computing resources. This is becoming worse as more and more complexity is being integrated into these small devices

    Formal models, usability and related work in IR (editorial for special edition)

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    The Glasgow IR group has carried out both theoretical and empirical work, aimed at giving end users efficient and effective access to large collections of multimedia data
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