39,540 research outputs found

    Regional variation in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome

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    Knee Osteoarthritis:From early to clinically relevant stage

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    Explorations into Appendicular Ontogeny using a Cross-Sectional, Contemporary U.S. Sample

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    Investigations into the subadult skeleton have been restricted by sample availability in biological anthropology. Alternatively, the same source of longitudinal data has been repeatedly used, which does not reflect the variability of growth and development (i.e., ontogeny) or the United States (U.S.) population. Small and/or homogenous samples have often resulted in limited or inappropriate modeling choices to investigate the growth and development and variation of the subadult skeleton. Recent technological advancements have made virtual anthropology possible. The use of computed tomography (CT) scans has opened the doors to increasing sample sizes of minority groups and in turn increasing the variation of skeletal information. One repository, the Subadult Virtual Anthropology Database (SVAD), has focused on increasing and diversifying subadult skeletal data to increase the possibilities of subadult research in biological anthropology. The articles in this (non)dissertation collection use the SVAD (M=610, F=416) and the Forensic Anthropology Data Bank (FDB; M=285, F=161) to evaluate three different perspectives of appendicular (i.e., long bone) ontogeny: absolute, relative, and index. First, relative long bone lengths and nonlinear modeling are used as the first-ever evaluation of long bone growth through adult stabilization. Second, the brachial and crural indices are used to explore the chronological ontogenetic trajectories of each index and their ecogeographic patterns. Third, absolute long bone breadth and length measurements are used to create linear and nonlinear equations for estimating subadult stature for forensic application. In doing so, this is the first comprehensive collection of studies that explore three distinct perspectives of long bone ontogeny and variation from the same source of subadult skeletal data, demonstrating the need for additional contemporary subadult samples and novel modeling approaches

    Pengaruh Pengungkapan Corporate Social Responsibility, Struktur Modal, dan Financial Distress terhadap Return Saham Perusahaan Manufaktur yang Terdaftar di BEI Tahun 2017-2021

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    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of corporate social responsibility disclosure, capital structure and financial distress on stock returns. The sample is a manufacturing company listed on the IDX between 2017 and 2021. The sampling method was carried out using the convenience sampling method, namely the sample was determined with certain considerations so that 38 companies were selected. Data analysis procedure with multiple linear regression analysis. The test results show that partially, capital structure and financial distress have a positive and significant effect on stock returns; while CSR disclosure proved to have no significant effect on stock returns. Simultaneously, the three independent variables analyzed proved to have a significant effect on stock returns

    Identifying The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on The Sleep Quality of Aging Adults With MCI: A Comparative Study

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    Aging adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are underrepresented in built environment research, specifically studies that mainly focus on low socioeconomic status and racial minorities. Part of this thesis is a part of a larger study conducted by the Cognitive Empowerment Program that is investigating the built environment of aging adults with MCI. The aim of this thesis is multifold: first, to provide a clearer understanding of the differences in the sleep environment related to socioeconomic status in aging adults with MCI and investigate if these differences affect their sleep health. Second, this thesis also aimed to evaluate which home environment factors, such as lighting, noise, temperature, air quality and housing insecurity affect sleep health for aging adults with MCI. Lastly, this thesis aimed to empower underprivileged aging adults with MCI and give back to this community that is not represented enough in research. Affluent and underprivileged aging adults with MCI were surveyed in Atlanta Georgia, using mental health measures, cognitive health measures, sleep quality measures and a built environment survey that asks questions about their sleeping environment. This study was able to suggest an association between socioeconomic status with sleep quality, depression, and stress. The findings of this study also suggest a relationship between sleep health and the satisfaction with the current living arrangement, homeownership, wanting to move out of current living arrangement and moving frequency. Lastly, this study was also able to identify gender differences in sleep health. This study is a preliminary investigation on the home and sleeping environments of underprivileged aging adults with MCI. Since there is a lack of literature about this presented topic, future research should investigate the indoor environmental conditions and its relationship with sleep health of racial/ethnic minorities, low socioeconomic status groups, and cognitive aging adults to allow these vulnerable populations to age-in-place in their homes peacefully and independently.M.S

    A toolbox for a structured risk-based prehabilitation program in major surgical oncology

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    Prehabilitation is a multimodal concept to improve functional capability prior to surgery, so that the patients’ resilience is strengthened to withstand any peri- and postoperative comorbidity. It covers physical activities, nutrition, and psychosocial wellbeing. The literature is heterogeneous in outcomes and definitions. In this scoping review, class 1 and 2 evidence was included to identify seven main aspects of prehabilitation for the treatment pathway: (i) risk assessment, (ii) FITT (frequency, interventions, time, type of exercise) principles of prehabilitation exercise, (iii) outcome measures, (iv) nutrition, (v) patient blood management, (vi) mental wellbeing, and (vii) economic potential. Recommendations include the risk of tumor progression due to delay of surgery. Patients undergoing prehabilitation should perceive risk assessment by structured, quantifiable, and validated tools like Risk Analysis Index, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), American Society of Anesthesiology Score, or Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group scoring. Assessments should be repeated to quantify its effects. The most common types of exercise include breathing exercises and moderate- to high-intensity interval protocols. The program should have a duration of 3–6 weeks with 3–4 exercises per week that take 30–60 min. The 6-Minute Walking Testing is a valid and resource-saving tool to assess changes in aerobic capacity. Long-term assessment should include standardized outcome measurements (overall survival, 90-day survival, Dindo–Clavien/CCI®) to monitor the potential of up to 50% less morbidity. Finally, individual cost-revenue assessment can help assess health economics, confirming the hypothetic saving of 8fortreatmentfor8 for treatment for 1 spent for prehabilitation. These recommendations should serve as a toolbox to generate hypotheses, discussion, and systematic approaches to develop clinical prehabilitation standards

    Effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions in nine fields of activity to decrease SARS-CoV-2 transmission (Spain, September 2020–May 2021)

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    Background: We estimated the association between the level of restriction in nine different fields of activity and SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility in Spain, from 15 September 2020 to 9 May 2021. Methods: A stringency index (0–1) was created for each Spanish province (n = 50) daily. A hierarchical multiplicative model was fitted. The median of coefficients across provinces (95% bootstrap confidence intervals) quantified the effect of increasing one standard deviation in the stringency index over the logarithmic return of the weekly percentage variation of the 7-days SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence, lagged 12 days. Results: Overall, increasing restrictions reduced SARS-CoV-2 transmission by 22% (RR = 0.78; one-sided 95%CI: 0, 0.82) in 1 week, with highest effects for culture and leisure 14% (0.86; 0, 0.98), social distancing 13% (0.87; 0, 0.95), indoor restaurants 10% (0.90; 0, 0.95) and indoor sports 6% (0.94; 0, 0.98). In a reduced model with seven fields, culture and leisure no longer had a significant effect while ceremonies decreased transmission by 5% (0.95; 0, 0.96). Models R2 was around 70%. Conclusion: Increased restrictions decreased COVID-19 transmission. Limitations include remaining collinearity between fields, and somewhat artificial quantification of qualitative restrictions, so the exact attribution of the effect to specific areas must be done with caution.This work has been partially supported by GAIN (Galician Innovation Agency) and the Regional Ministry of Economy, Employment and Industry, Xunta de Galicia IN845D 2020/26 (Grant COV20/00604) through the ERDF (2014-2020). The research of DGU has been financed in part by the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación under grants PID2021-122154NB-I00 and TED2021-129455B-I00, and by a 2021 BBVA Foundation project for research in Mathematics. He also acknowledges support from the EU under the 2014-2020 ERDF Operational Programme and the Department of Economy, Knowledge, Business and University of the Regional Government of Andalusia (FEDER-UCA18-108393).S

    The association of spirometric small airways obstruction with respiratory symptoms, cardiometabolic diseases, and quality of life: Results from the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study

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    Background: Spirometric small airways obstruction (SAO) is common in the general population. Whether spirometric SAO is associated with respiratory symptoms, cardiometabolic diseases, and quality of life (QoL) is unknown. Methods: Using data from the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study (N = 21,594), we defined spirometric SAO as the mean forced expiratory flow rate between 25 and 75% of the FVC (FEF25-75) less than the lower limit of normal (LLN) or the forced expiratory volume in 3 s to FVC ratio (FEV3/FVC) less than the LLN. We analysed data on respiratory symptoms, cardiometabolic diseases, and QoL collected using standardised questionnaires. We assessed the associations with spirometric SAO using multivariable regression models, and pooled site estimates using random effects meta-analysis. We conducted identical analyses for isolated spirometric SAO (i.e. with FEV1/FVC ≥ LLN). Results: Almost a fifth of the participants had spirometric SAO (19% for FEF25-75; 17% for FEV3/FVC). Using FEF25-75, spirometric SAO was associated with dyspnoea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.77–2.70), chronic cough (OR = 2.56, 95% CI 2.08–3.15), chronic phlegm (OR = 2.29, 95% CI 1.77–4.05), wheeze (OR = 2.87, 95% CI 2.50–3.40) and cardiovascular disease (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.11–1.52), but not hypertension or diabetes. Spirometric SAO was associated with worse physical and mental QoL. These associations were similar for FEV3/FVC. Isolated spirometric SAO (10% for FEF25-75; 6% for FEV3/FVC), was also associated with respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Spirometric SAO is associated with respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and QoL. Consideration should be given to the measurement of FEF25-75 and FEV3/FVC, in addition to traditional spirometry parameters

    Coinfections of malaria and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis protocol.

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    INTRODUCTION: Malaria infection and curable sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs) adversely impact pregnancy outcomes. In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of malaria and curable STIs/RTIs is high and, where coinfection is common, combination interventions may be needed to improve pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to estimate the prevalence of malaria and curable STI/RTI coinfection during pregnancy, risk factors for coinfection and prevalence of associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use three electronic databases, PubMed, EMBASE and Malaria in Pregnancy Library to identify studies involving pregnant women attending routine antenatal care facilities in sub-Saharan Africa and reporting malaria and curable STI/RTI test results, published in any language since 2000. We will search databases in the second quarter of 2023 and repeat the search before completion of our analyses. The first two authors will screen titles and abstracts, selecting studies that meet inclusion criteria and qualify for full-text screening. If agreement on inclusion/exclusion cannot be reached, the last author will serve as arbiter. We will extract data from eligible publications for a study-level meta-analysis. We will contact research groups of included studies and request individual participant data for meta-analysis. The first two authors will conduct a quality appraisal of included studies using the GRADE system. The last author will adjudicate if the first two authors do not agree on any appraisals. We will conduct sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of effect estimates over time (by decade and half-decade periods), geography (East/Southern Africa vs West/Central Africa), gravidity (primigravidae, secundigravidae, multigravidae), treatment type and dosing frequency, and malaria transmission intensity. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We obtained ethics approval from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM Ethics Ref: 26167). Results of this study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and presentation at scientific conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021224294

    Pengaruh Self-Direction in Learning dalam pembelajaran jarak jauh terhadap karakter tanggung jawab dan disiplin siswa kelas VI di Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Kecamatan Klojen

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    ABSTRAK Penelitian ini membahas tentang Pengaruh Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh terhadap Karakter Tanggung Jawab dan Disiplin Kelas VI di Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Kecamatan Klojen. Latar belakang dari penelitian ini adalah pembelajaran jarak jauh dalam masa pandemi (covid 19) dimana guru harus tetap dituntut untuk memberikan materi dan pembelajaran kepada siswa, untuk itu karakter tanggung jawab dan disiplin setiap individu dibutuhkan agar kegiatan pembelajaran jarak jauh dapat berjalan dengan baik. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis: 1) Kondisi Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh terhadap karakter tanggung jawab dan disiplin. 2) Pengaruh Pembelajaran Jarak jauh terhadap karakter tanggung jawab 3) Pengaruh pembelajaran jarak jauh terhadap karakter disiplin siswa kelas VI di Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Kecamatan Klojen. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kuantitatif dengan menggunakan regresi linear sederhana. Populasi pada penelitian ini yaitu berjumlah 38 siswa. Instrumen yang digunakan pada penelitian ini menggunakan kuesioner. Dan teknik analasis data menggunakan uji instrument penelitian, uji asumsi klasik, uji analasis linear sederhana, dan uji hipotesis parsial (t). Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa praktek pembelajaran dengan jarak jauh sudah diterapkan dan berpengaruh terhadap karakter tanggung jawab dan disiplin siswa. Karena Timbulnya rasa tanggung jawab dan disiplin oleh siswa untuk menuntaskan hasil belajar mereka. Terbukti dengan adanya pengaruh yang signifikan antara Pembelajaran jarak jauh terhadap karakter tanggung jawab dimana t hitung > t tabel (4,436> 1,688). Ada pengaruh yang signifikan dari pembelajaran jarak jauh terhadap karakter disiplin dimana t hitung > t tabel (3,714> 1,688). ABSTRACT This research discusses about the Effect of Distance Learning on the Character of Responsibility and Discipline of Class VI Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Klojen District. The background of this research is distance learning during the pandemic (covid 19) where teachers must still be required to provide material and learning to students, for this reason a character of responsibility and discipline is needed for each individual so that distance learning activities can run well. The purpose of this research is to analyze: 1) Conditions of Distance Learning on the character of responsibility and discipline. 2) The effect of distance learning on the character of responsibility 3) The effect of distance learning on the disciplinary character of class VI Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Klojen District. This research uses quantitative research methods with simple linear regression. The population in this research are 38 students. The instrument used in this research uses a questionnaire. And data analysis techniques using research instrument test, classic assumption test, simple linear analysis test, and partial hypothesis test (t). The results of this research indicate that distance learning practices have been implemented and affect the character of student responsibility and discipline. Due to the emergence of a sense of responsibility and discipline by students to complete their learning outcomes. Evidenced by the existence of a significant influence between distance learning on the character of responsibility where t count > t table (4,436 > 1,688). There is a significant effect of distance learning on the character of discipline where t count > t table (3,714 > 1,688). مستخلص البحث هذا البحث يبحث عن أثر التعليم عن بعد على شخصية المسؤولية والانضباط للصف السادس في المدرسة الابتدائية بمنطقة كلوجين. خلفية هذا البحث هي التعليم عن بعد أثناء جائحة كوفد 19 حيث يُطلَب من المعلمين توفير المواد والتعلم للطلاب، لذلك، هناك حاجة إلى شخصية المسؤولية والانضباط لكل فرد لتكون أنشطة التعليم عن بعد تسير بشكل جيد. الهدف من هذا البحث هو تحليل: 1) حالة التعليم عن بعد نحو شخصية المسؤولية والانضباط. 2) تأثير التعليم عن بعد على شخصية المسؤولية 3) تأثير التعليم عن بعد على شخصية الانضباط لطلاب الصف السادس في المدرسة الابتدائية بمنطقة كلوجين. يستخدم هذا البحث منهج البحث الكمي باستخدام الانحدار الخطي البسيط. كان مجتمع البحث في هذا البحث 38 طالبا. الأدوات المستخدمة في هذا البحث هي استبانة. وتقنية تحليل البيانات المستخدمة هي اختبارات أدوات البحث، واختبارات الافتراض الكلاسيكي، واختبارات التحليل الخطي البسيط، واختبارات الفرضيات الجزئية (t). تدل نتائج هذا البحث على أن ممارسة التعليم عن بعد قد تم تنفيذها وتؤثر على شخصية مسؤولية الطالب وانضباطه. بسبب ظهور شعور بالمسؤولية والانضباط من قبل الطلاب لإكمال حاصل التعليم لهم. ويدل على ذلك وجود التأثير الكبير بين التعليم عن بعد على شخصية المسؤولية حيث تم احتساب t > جدول t (4,436 > 1,688). هناك تأثير كبير للتعليم عن بعد على شخصية الانضباط حيث تم حساب t > جدول t (3,714 > 1,688)
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