210,542 research outputs found

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry - Application in the clinical laboratory

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    This review provides a concise survey of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCTMS) as an emerging technology in clinical chemistry. The combination of two mass spectrometers with an interposed collision cell characterizes LCTMS as an analytical technology on its own and not just as a more specific detector for HPLC compared with conventional techniques. In LCTMS, liquid chromatography is rather used for sample preparation but not for complete resolution of compounds of interest. The instrument technology of LCTMS is complex and comparatively expensive; however, in routine use, methods are far more rugged compared to conventional chromatographic techniques and enable highthroughput analyses with very limited manual handling steps. Moreover, compared to both gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS) and conventional HPLC techniques, LCTMS is substantially more versatile with respect to the spectrum of analyzable compounds. For these reasons it is likely that LCTMS will gain far more widespread use in the clinical laboratory than HPLC and GCMS ever did. In this article, the key features of LCTMS are described, method development is explained, typical fields of application are discussed, and personal experiences are related

    Capillary HPLC Separation of Selected Neuropeptides

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    Neuropeptides play a pivotal role in brain and peripheral nervous system function. As high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) becomes the central tool in the separation and characterization of peptide and protein samples, its selectivity optimization has attracted increasing attention. This research program aims to develop useful, quantitative analysis methods for neuropeptides and their hydrolysis fragments by capillary HPLC. Related peptide pairs are successfully separated, such as leu-enkephalin and [Des-Tyr1] leu-enkephalin, dynorphin A and dynorphin B, galanin and its fragment Gal1-16. The hydrolysis of leu-enkephalin to [Des-Tyr1] leu-enkephalin by organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) can be monitored by the same HPLC system. The separation of seven hippocampal neuropeptides with similar hydrophobicity, Bj-PRO-5a, [Des-Tyr1] leu-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin, pentagastrin, Antho-RW-amide I, dynorphin A 1-6 and angiotensin II, is accomplished by thermally tuned tandem capillary columns (T3C). The chromatographic selectivity is continuously, systematically and significantly optimized by individual adjustment of each column’s temperature. The T3C concept is applied for the first time with capillary columns, which is an important step towards optimization of selectivity for separations of small samples by liquid chromatography

    Allelopathic effect of the Cladonia verticillaris lichen extracts and fumarprotocetraric acid on the early growth of germinated seedlings in Allium cepa L.

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    The allelopathic activity of the different type of Cladonia verticillaris lichen extracts and fumarprotocetraric acid on the early growth of A. cepa (IPA 6) germinated seedlings depends on their chemical composition and concentration, respectively. It was observed that the length of the radicle was significantly stimulated by fumarprotocetraric acid at high concentrations and by the total extract of C. verticillaris thalli, which contained high level of fumarprotocetraric, acid confirmed by HPLC – technique. In addition, it was found, that the phosphate buffer extract, which contained high level of methy betha-orcinol carboxilate measured by HPLC, significantly reduced the length of the hypocotyls. Under our experimental conditions there was no influence of different type of extract and fumarprotocetraric acid on the seed germination ratio of A. cepa, in relation to control. From the study of HPLC it was found that fumarprotocetraric acid and methy betha-orcinol carboxilate were present in all extracts at different concentrations, according to the method of extraction

    Core-Shell Columns in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Food Analysis Applications

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    Theincreased separation efficiency provided by the newtechnology of column packed with core-shell particles in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted in their widespread diffusion in several analytical fields: from pharmaceutical, biological, environmental, and toxicological.The present paper presents their most recent applications in food analysis.Their use has proved to be particularly advantageous for the determination of compounds at trace levels or when a large amount of samples must be analyzed fast using reliable and solvent-saving apparatus. The literature hereby described shows how the outstanding performances provided by core-shell particles column on a traditional HPLC instruments are comparable to those obtained with a costly UHPLC instrumentation, making this novel column a promising key tool in food analysis
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