24,933 research outputs found

    Pathways for the Valorization of Animal and Human Waste to Biofuels, Sustainable Materials, and Value-Added Chemicals

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    Human and animal waste, including waste products originating from human or animal digestive systems, such as urine, feces, and animal manure, have constituted a nuisance to the environment. Inappropriate disposal and poor sanitation of human and animal waste often cause negative impacts on human health through contamination of the terrestrial environment, soil, and water bodies. Therefore, it is necessary to convert these wastes into useful resources to mitigate their adverse environmental effect. The present study provides an overview and research progress of different thermochemical and biological conversion pathways for the transformation of human- and animal-derived waste into valuable resources. The physicochemical properties of human and animal waste are meticulously discussed, as well as nutrient recovery strategies. In addition, a bibliometric analysis is provided to identify the trends in research and knowledge gaps. The results reveal that the USA, China, and England are the dominant countries in the research areas related to resource recovery from human or animal waste. In addition, researchers from the University of Illinois, the University of California Davis, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Zhejiang University are front runners in research related to these areas. Future research could be extended to the development of technologies for on-site recovery of resources, exploring integrated resource recovery pathways, and exploring different safe waste processing methods

    Uma Queimadura Solar Bizarra

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    A s√≠ndrome de DRESS (drug rash with eosinophlia and systemic symptoms) trata-se de uma rea√ß√£o de hipersensibilidade¬†induzida por f√°rmacos, rara, complexa e potencialmente fatal. Geralmente evolui com erup√ß√£o cut√Ęnea, altera√ß√Ķes¬†hematol√≥gicas, linfadenopatia, com envolvimento de √≥rg√£os.¬†Os autores apresentam o caso cl√≠nico de um homem caucasiano de 79 anos que deu entrada no servi√ßo de urg√™ncia¬†devido a uma queimadura no t√≥rax e abd√≥men ap√≥s f√©rias e exposi√ß√£o solar sem prote√ß√£o solar. A sua medica√ß√£o habitual¬†h√° 2 anos √©: perindopril+amlodipina, sinvastatina e alopurinol. Apresentava tamb√©m um eritema maculopapular¬†pruriginoso no dorso e erup√ß√£o eritematosa confluente nos membros inferiores, semelhantes a les√Ķes purp√ļricas.¬†Dados laboratoriais demonstraram linfopenia e eleva√ß√£o das enzimas hep√°ticas. De acordo com o score RegiSCAR,¬†este caso classifica-se como prov√°vel s√≠ndrome de DRESS. O alopurinol foi suspenso imediatamente e foi iniciada¬†prednisolona. Foi observado um m√™s depois, com melhoria progressiva das les√Ķes. O diagn√≥stico da s√≠ndrome de¬†DRESS √© desafiante e deve-se suspeitar do seu diagn√≥stico num doente sob f√°rmacos de alto risco com cl√≠nica caracter√≠stica.¬†A abordagem inicial consiste no tratamento de suporte e na suspens√£o imediata do f√°rmaco. No caso apresentado,¬†o doente queixava-se de queimadura, mas apresentava uma toxidermia por alopurinol que se manifestou de¬†forma bizarra

    Noregs Bank : årsrapport og rekneskap 2022

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    Willingness to Vaccinate Against Herpes Zoster and Its Associated Factors Across WHO Regions: Global Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    BACKGROUND: A life-course immunization approach would enhance the quality of life across all age groups and improve societal well-being. The herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine is highly recommended for older adults to prevent HZ infection and related complications. The proportions of willingness to receive the HZ vaccine varies across countries, and various kinds of factors, including sociodemographics and individual perceptions, influence the willingness to vaccinate. OBJECTIVE: We aim to estimate the HZ vaccination willingness rate and identify factors associated with vaccine uptake willingness across all World Health Organization (WHO) regions. METHODS: A global systematic search was performed on PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for all papers related to the HZ vaccine published until June 20, 2022. Study characteristics were extracted for each included study. Using double arcsine transformation, vaccination willingness rates with 95% CIs were pooled and reported. The willingness rate and associated factors were analyzed by geographical context. Associated factors were also summarized based on Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. RESULTS: Of the 26,942 identified records, 13 (0.05%) papers were included, covering 14,066 individuals from 8 countries in 4 WHO regions (Eastern Mediterranean Region, European Region, Region of the Americas, and Western Pacific Region). The pooled vaccination willingness rate was 55.74% (95% CI 40.85%-70.13%). Of adults aged ‚Č•50 years, 56.06% were willing to receive the HZ vaccine. After receiving health care workers' (HCWs) recommendations, 75.19% of individuals were willing to get the HZ vaccine; without HCWs' recommendations, the willingness rate was only 49.39%. The willingness rate was more than 70% in the Eastern Mediterranean Region and approximately 55% in the Western Pacific Region. The willingness rate was the highest in the United Arab Emirates and the lowest in China and the United Kingdom. The perception of HZ severity and susceptibility was positively associated with vaccination willingness. The perceived barriers to vaccination willingness (main reasons for unwillingness) included low trust in the effectiveness of the HZ vaccine, concerns about safety, financial concerns, and being unaware of the HZ vaccine's availability. Older individuals, those having lower education, or those having lower income levels were less likely to willing to be vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Only 1 in 2 individuals showed a willingness to be vaccinated against HZ. The willingness rate was the highest in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Our findings show the critical role HCWs play in promoting HZ vaccination. Monitoring HZ vaccination willingness is necessary to inform public health decision-making. These findings provide critical insights for designing future life-course immunization programs

    Energy recovery of sheep and ram wool for combustion and pyrolysis thermal processes

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    29 páginas, figuras y gráficos[ES] La problemática de residuos es uno de los principales desafíos de la sociedad actual. El sector textil contribuye notablemente de forma negativa. Este hecho es debido a que actualmente su aprovechamiento está pasando a segundo plano en detrimento de los más baratos tejidos sintéticos. Por ello, los ganaderos se centran en obtener leche o carne de sus explotaciones, mientras que la lana termina como un producto residual. Este trabajo trata los residuos procedentes de la lana de oveja y carnero. Para poder obtener un beneficio y evitar seguir contribuyendo a la generación de residuos, proponemos una recuperación energética a partir de estos desechos, contribuyendo a la economía circular a través de un proceso renovable y prometedor. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue el de estudiar el comportamiento térmico de la lana para su aprovechamiento térmico en calderas de combustión y pirólisis. A través de una serie de análisis y tratamientos en laboratorio, obtuvimos datos específicos para oveja y carnero que derivaron en el posterior estudio termogravimétrico y cálculo de índices térmicos para cada muestra. Los resultados indicaron las buenas propiedades combustibles de las muestras analizadas, así como revelaron una mayor estabilidad térmica para la combustión de la lana de oveja y materia desprendida en el pico más representativo (31,660%/min) en relación al mismo valor del carnero (15,420 %/min). De la misma forma, para el proceso térmico de pirólisis, no existieron diferencias apreciables entre ambos tipos de lana.[EN] The waste problem is one of the main challenges of today's society. The textile sector contributes notably in a negative way. This fact is due to the fact that currently its use is passing into the background to the detriment of the cheapest synthetic fabrics. For this reason, farmers focus on obtaining milk or meat from their farms, while wool ends up as a residual product. This work deals with waste from sheep and ram wool. In order to obtain a benefit and avoid continuing to contribute to the generation of waste, we propose an energy recovery from this waste, contributing to the circular economy through a renewable and promising process. The main objective of this work was to study the thermal behaviour of wool for its thermal use in combustion and pyrolysis boilers. Through a series of laboratory analysis and treatments, we obtained specific data for sheep and ram that led to the subsequent thermogravimetric study and thermal indexes estimation. The results indicated the good combustible properties of the analysed samples, as well as revealed a greater thermal stability for the combustion of the sheep's wool and matter released in the most representative peak (31,660%/min) in relation to the same value of the ram (15,420 %/min). In the same way, for the thermal pyrolysis process, there were no appreciable differences between both types of wool

    Har studenter med sen d√łgnrytme mindre tro p√• seg selv: En sp√łrreunders√łkelse om kronotype og mestringstro

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    Mestringstro er en person sin tro p√• egen mestringsevne, og ser ut til √• kunne p√•virke blant annet akademisk prestasjon. Det har blitt gjort f√• studier p√• sammenhengen mellom mestringstro og kronotype, og det ble ikke funnet noen norske studier p√• dette. For √• unders√łke denne sammenhengen blant studenter i Norge, ble det konstruert et digitalt sp√łrreskjema med instrumenter som unders√łkte studenters opplevd mestringstro, psykiske plager, symptomer p√• insomni og deres kronotype. Utvalget bestod av 199 studenter, hvor 160 var kvinner og 39 var menn i alderen 18 til 37 √•r (M = 23, SD = 3.5). Denne sammenhengen ble unders√łkt ved at det ble gjennomf√łrt Pearsons korrelasjon og hierarkisk multippel regresjonsanalyse. Resultatene fra korrelasjonsanalysene viste at det var en positiv statistisk sammenheng mellom tidlig kronotype og mestringstro (r = .27, p < .001). Mestringstro var derimot negativt statistisk korrelert med psykiske plager (r = -.57, p < .001) og symptomer p√• insomni (r = -.37, p < .001). Resultatene var forenlig med v√•r hypotese om at senere kronotype vil v√¶re assosiert med lavere opplevd mestringstro. Imidlertid ble sammenhengen mellom kveldstype og opplevd mestringstro ikke lenger signifikant n√•r denne statistiske sammenhengen ble kontrollert for bakgrunnsvariablene psykiske plager og symptomer p√• insomni (t = -1.94, p = .054). En tenkt √•rsak til dette kan v√¶re at psykiske plager (t = -7.31, p < .001) var sterkere assosiert med lavere mestringstro enn kronotype alene

    Arbeidsmengde, konsultasjonstid og utilsiktede effekter av takstsystemet

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    Source at https://www.fhi.no/.Dette notatet har bakgrunn i det NFR-finansierte forskningsprosjektet ¬ęStykkprisfinansiering i prim√¶rhelsetjenesten: Utilsiktede bivirkninger for pasienter og samfunn?¬Ľ (1). Forskningsprosjektet ledes av professor Arnstein Mykletun, seniorforsker ved FHI, og involvert i dette notatet er ph.d. stipendiatene Kristian Kraft og Eivor Hovde Hoff, samt forsker og fastlege Kristian Amundsen √ėstby, alle ved FHI. Dette notatet er et oppdrag for ekspertutvalget for gjennomgang av allmennlegetjenesten som fikk sitt mandat 11.08.22 av Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet (2). Analysene for notatet er utf√łrt i tidsperioden januar og februar 2023. Helsedirektoratet har frikj√łpt arbeidstid fra ovennevnte for leveranse av disse analysene. Ekspertgruppens behov for innsikt og resultater var sammenfallende med planlagte problemstillinger for det NFRfinansierte forskningsprosjektet, og kunne derfor gjennomf√łres p√• grunnlag av KUHR-data og Fastlegeregisteret. Tilleggsfinansieringen til dette notatet har muliggjort √• fremskynde visse analyser og tilrettelegge resultatpresentasjonen for ekspertgruppen. Dette notatet inng√•r ogs√• som rapportering i det nevnte NFR-prosjektet. Det er gitt n√łdvendige godkjenninger (dispensasjon fra taushetsplikten) fra Regional etisk komite (REK-nummer 210548) og er tilr√•dt av personvernombudet ved FHI. Det har ikke v√¶rt utf√łrt fagfellevurdering, begrunnet i den korte tidsrammen for prosjektet. Analyser i denne rapporten vil i noen grad inng√• i fagfellevurderte internasjonale og nasjonale publikasjoner i framtiden
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