Kobe University Hospital

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    A Study on the Outcomes of Kobe Global Challenge Program : Based on Three Participants’ Follow-Up Cases

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    Recent Least Burdensome Approach for the Approval of Innovative Medical Devices in Japan -Regulatory Approval Review of an Everolimus-eluting Bioresorbable Scaffold-

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    Although a domestic trial in Japan revealed that Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) has no inferiority to everolimus-eluting stent (EES) cohort in the primary endpoint of the target lesion failure at 12 months, the scaffold/stent thrombosis (ST) rates with the BVS at 24 months were higher than those with the EES (Absorb BVS 3.1% vs. EES 1.5%), the ST rate of 3.1% with Absorb BVS is not an acceptable level in Japan. A cause-of-ST analysis revealed that cases in which diagnostic imaging and ensuing post-dilatation had been performed appropriately had lower ST rates than those without such management (within 1 year: 1.37% vs. 7.69%, from 1 to 2 years: 0.00% vs. 8.33%). Therefore, a further evaluation was needed to confirm that the ST rate with the Absorb BVS would be reduced by a proper implementation procedure. Regulatory approval was given conditionally to initiate rigorous post-marketing data collection in order to ensure the proper use of this device in limited facilities. The One-year Use-Result Survey in Japan for the Absorb BVS revealed no instances of ST. This approach to reducing the premarket regulatory burden of clinical trials and enhancing the post-marketing commitments of medical device regulation is useful for expediting patient access to innovative medical devices

    Functional Assembly of Caenorhabditis elegans Cytochrome b-2 (Cecytb-2) into Phospholipid Bilayer Nanodisc with Enhanced Iron Reductase Activity

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    Among seven homologs of cytochrome b561 in a model organism C. elegans, Cecytb-2 was confirmed to be expressed in digestive organs and was considered as a homolog of human Dcytb functioning as a ferric reductase. Cecytb-2 protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris cells, purified, and reconstituted into a phospholipid bilayer nanodisc. The reconstituted Cecytb-2 in nanodisc environments was extremely stable and more reducible with ascorbate than in a detergent-micelle state. We confirmed the ferric reductase activity of Cecytb-2 by analyzing the oxidation of ferrous heme upon addition of ferric substrate under anaerobic conditions, where clear and saturable dependencies on the substrate concentrations following the Michaelis–Menten equation were observed. Further, we confirmed that the ferric substrate was converted to a ferrous state by using a nitroso-PSAP assay. Importantly, we observed that the ferric reductase activity of Cecytb-2 became enhanced in the phospholipid bilayer nanodisc

    In vivo evaluation of percutaneous carbon dioxide treatment for improving intratumoral hypoxia using 18F-fluoromisonidazole PET-CT

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    Carbon dioxide (CO2) treatment is reported to have an antitumor effect owing to the improvement in intratumoral hypoxia. Previous studies were based on histological analysis alone. In the present study, the improvement in intratumoral hypoxia by percutaneous CO2 treatment in vivo was determined using 18F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-FMISO PET-CT) images. Twelve Japanese nude mice underwent implantation of LM8 tumor cells in the dorsal subcutaneous area 2 weeks before percutaneous CO2 treatment and 18F-FMISO PET-CT scans. Immediately after intravenous injection of 18F-FMISO, CO2 and room air were administered transcutaneously in the CO2-treated group (n=6) and a control group (n=6), respectively; each treatment was performed for 10 minutes. PET-CT was performed 2 h after administration of 18F-FMISO. 18F-FMISO tumor uptake was quantitatively evaluated using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tumor-to-liver ratio (TLR), tumor-to-muscle ratio (TMR), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of the tumor volume was not significantly different between the two groups (CO2-treated group, 1.178±0.450 cm3; control group, 1.368±0.295 cm3; P=0.485). Mean ± SEM of SUVmax, TLR, MTV (cm3) and TLG were significantly lower in the CO2-treated group compared with the control group (0.880±0.095 vs. 1.253±0.071, P=0.015; 1.063±0.147361 vs. 1.455±0.078, P=0.041; 0.353±0.139 vs. 1.569±0.438, P=0.015; 0.182±0.070 vs. 1.028±0.338, P=0.015), respectively. TMR was not significantly different between the two groups (4.520±0.503 vs. 5.504±0.310; P=0.240). In conclusion, 18F-FMISO PET revealed that percutaneous CO2 treatment improved intratumoral hypoxia in vivo. This technique enables assessment of the therapeutic effect in CO2 treatment by imaging, and may contribute to its clinical application


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    Comparison of the drug retention and reasons for discontinuation of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and interleukin-6 inhibitors in Japanese patients with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis-the ANSWER cohort study

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    Background This multi-center, retrospective study aimed to clarify retention rates and reasons for discontinuation of either tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) or interleukin-6 inhibitors (IL-6i) in patients with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA). Methods Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) enrolled in a Japanese multicenter observational registry between 2011 and 2020 were included. EORA was defined as RA with onset at 60 or over. To adjust confounding by indication for treatment with TNFi or IL-6i, a propensity score based on multiple baseline characteristics variables was used to compare the drug retention and causes for discontinuation between TNFi and IL-6i. Adjusted cumulative incidence of drug discontinuation for each reason was compared between the two groups using the Fine-Gray model. Results Among a total of 9,550 patients in the registry, 674 TNFi and 297 IL-6i initiators with EORA were identified. Age, the proportion of females, disease duration, and baseline disease activity at the time of TNFi or IL-6i initiation were similar between the two groups. After adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups, overall drug discontinuation was significantly lower in the IL-6i as compared to the TNFi (HR = 0.71, 95%CI = 0.59-0.86, p < 0.001). The adjusted cumulative incidence of discontinuation due to lack of effectiveness was lower with the IL-6i (HR = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.33-0.63, p < 0.001) while those due to adverse events (HR = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.56-1.18, p = 0.28) or achievement of clinical remission (HR = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.62-1.91, p = 0.76) were similar between the two groups. Conclusions In EORA patients initiating a TNFi or IL-6i, significantly higher drug retention was observed with IL-6i. Discontinuation due to lack of effectiveness was significantly less frequent in IL-6i while discontinuations due to adverse event or achievement of clinical remission were similar between the two groups


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