475 research outputs found

    Stings of Ants of the Tribe Ectatommini (Formicidae: Ponerinae)

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    The sting apparatus anatomy is described and compared for 24 species in six of the 9 extant genera of Ectatommini: Paraponera, Acanthoponera, Gnamptogenys, Ectatomma, Proceratium, and Discothyrea. Phylogenetic analysis sorts 15 species of Gnamptogenys into four species groups. Phylogenetic analyses on the six ectatommine genera suggest that: 1) Gnamptogenys and Ectatomma are sister genera, 2) Proceratium and Discothyrea are sister genera, 3) Acanthoponera may be more related to Gnamptogenys and Ectatomma than to the others, and 4) Paraponera may not belong with the other five genera

    Formigas em bromélias : efeitos em cascata sobre a diversidade de artrópodes, ciclagem de nutrientes e ecofisiologia das plantas hospedeiras

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    Orientadores: Gustavo Quevedo Romero, Paulo S√©rgio Moreira Carvalho de OliveiraTese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de BiologiaResumo: O efeito top-down mais comumente associado no delineamento de comunidades e de redes tr√≥ficas √© a preda√ß√£o. Predadores podem consumir suas presas, mas tamb√©m sua presen√ßa no ambiente pode alterar a morfologia, o comportamento e o uso do habitat pelas presas. Estudos ecol√≥gicos t√™m considerado a identidade dos predadores e seu tamanho corporal como relevantes na determina√ß√£o das suas fun√ß√Ķes nos ecossistemas. Uma vez que mais de 80% dos animais tem ciclos de vida em mais de um ecossistema, predadores que se alimentam destes organismos podem causar cascatas tr√≥ficas inter-ecossistemas. Plantas da fam√≠lia Bromeliaceae est√£o entre as mais utilizadas como abrigo para formigas na regi√£o Neotropical e, possuindo tanque, essas plantas s√£o ocupadas por in√ļmeros organismos terrestres e aqu√°ticos, muitos dos quais possuem ciclos de vida complexos e fazem conex√Ķes inter-ecossistemas. Uma vez que a formiga Odontomachus hastatus estabelece seus ninhos nas ra√≠zes das brom√©lias Vriesea procera e Quesnelia arvensis, enquanto as formigas Gnamptogenys moelleri e Camponotus crassus estabelecem seus ninhos nas folhas dessas brom√©lias-tanque, estas esp√©cies de formigas podem alterar a diversidade de metazo√°rios nos ecossistemas terrestre e aqu√°tico das brom√©lias por meio da preda√ß√£o. Como consequ√™ncia, essas formigas podem causar cascatas tr√≥ficas inter-ecossistemas e interferir em processos ecossist√™micos nas brom√©lias (e.g., ciclagem de nutrientes e sua disponibilidade para as plantas). No presente estudo, fizemos coletas em campo e desenvolvemos experimentos em casa de vegeta√ß√£o e em campo utilizando m√©todos isot√≥picos e fisiol√≥gicos para averiguar, no primeiro cap√≠tulo, como a identidade de cada uma das esp√©cies de formigas contribuiu para a nutri√ß√£o e desenvolvimento de suas plantas hospedeiras por meio dos rejeitos dos ninhos. No segundo cap√≠tulo, investigamos o efeito da formiga O. hastatus sobre a diversidade de metazo√°rios aqu√°ticos e terrestres presentes nas brom√©lias V. procera em tr√™s diferentes localidades da Mata Atl√Ęntica. No terceiro cap√≠tulo, investigamos o efeito das tr√™s esp√©cies de formiga sobre a diversidade aqu√°tica de metazo√°rios, sobre o processamento dos detritos no tanque das brom√©lias e a ciclagem de nutrientes dos detritos para as brom√©lias. Nossos resultados demostram que as formigas, especialmente O. hastatus, afetam a diversidade de metazo√°rios aqu√°ticos, e alteraram apenas a composi√ß√£o de metazo√°rios terrestres. Odontomachus hastatus foi a esp√©cie que mais contribuiu para a nutri√ß√£o e desenvolvimento das brom√©lias por meio dos detritos dos ninhos presentes nas ra√≠zes, enquanto C. crassus favoreceu o processamento da mat√©ria org√Ęnica e o fluxo de nitrog√™nio dos detritos para as brom√©lias via tanqueAbstract: The most commonly top-down effect associated in designing communities and food webs is predation. Predators can consume their prey, but their presence in the environment can alter the morphology, behavior and habitat use by prey. Ecological studies have considered the identity of predators and their body size in determining their roles in ecosystems. Since more than 80% of animals have complex life cycles in more than one ecosystem, predators that feed on these organisms can cause cross-ecosystem cascade effects. Bromeliaceae are among the most common plants used as a shelter for ants in the Neotropics and also are occupied by numerous terrestrial and aquatic metazoans, which many of them have complex life cycles. Since Odontomachus hastatus, Gnamptogenys moelleri and Camponotus crassus establish their nests in Vriesea procera and Quesnelia arvensis, they may change the diversity of species in terrestrial and aquatic bromeliad ecosystems through predation. As a result, these ants can cause cross-ecosystem effects and may change ecosystem processes in bromeliads (e.g., nutrient cycling and nutrient availability for plants). In this study, we surveyed in the field and developed greenhouse and field experiments using isotopic and physiological methods to investigate, in the first chapter, how each ant species contributes to the nutrition and development of its host plant through nest debris. In the second chapter, we investigated the effect of O. hastatus on the terrestrial and aquatic diversity of metazoans in V. procera bromeliads at three different localities of the Atlantic Forest. In the third chapter, we investigated the effect of the three ant species on the aquatic diversity of metazoans, on the detritus processing and nutrient cycling from detritus to bromeliads. Our results demonstrate that ants, especially O. hastatus, affected the diversity of aquatic metazoans, and O. hastatus contributed more to the nutrition and development its host bromeliads (Vriesea procera and Quesnelia arvensis) through nest debris. On the other hand, C. crassus favored the processing of organic matter and nitrogen flow from detritus to Q. arvensis bromeliads through the tankDoutoradoEcologiaDoutor em Ecologia2011/10137-88377/12-0FAPESPCAPESCNP

    Mapping continental Ecuadorian ant species

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    Ecuador is considered a megadiverse country but information on the distribution and conservation of its ant species is scarce and scattered through the literature. Here we review 150 years of published literature to assemble the first comprehensive species list of continental Ecuadorian ants (excluding the Galapagos Islands). Our main goals are to provide support to online tools (www.theantsofecuador.com), and to serve as a reference to the various research initiatives currently being done in the country. We found 2,124 ant records, from 679 ant species, in 180 localities, reported in 149 articles. We used a subset of this database (i.e. 1,111 records left after removal of duplicates and records with no locality info) to review the Ecuadorian regions, provinces, and national parks covered by the list. For a tropical country, both the number of records per ant species (mean=1.8, SD=1.9) and the number of ant species per locality (mean=6.2, SD=29.7) are extremely low. Moreover, the ant records in our list are biased towards three provinces (Orellana, 410 ant records and 378 ant spp.; Sucumbios, 212 and 177; Pichincha, 129 and 92), one region (Oriente, 779 records and 487 ant species) and non-protected areas (777 ant records and 510 ant spp.). Endemic ants are poorly covered by the Ecuadorian system of protected areas. This study highlights the gaps and opportunities in ant research for the country

    Expanding the Distribution of the Remarkable Ant Gnamptogenys vriesi Brand√£o & Lattke (Formicidae, Ectatomminae): First Record From Brazil

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    Gnamptogenys vriesi Brand√£o & Lattke is a rare ant originally described based on a worker and on a gyne collected in Morona Santiago province, in Ecuador. After the original description, few specimens of this species were collected in Ecuadorian territory. In this paper we reported the first record for Brazil, which resulted in a significant extension on the knowledge of the distribution of this species, which was currently considered to be restricted to Ecuador. In addition, we also provided images and a distribution map for this species

    Species-specific Effects Of Ant Inhabitants On Bromeliad Nutrition

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    Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)Predator activities may lead to the accumulation of nutrients in specific areas of terrestrial habitats where they dispose of prey carcasses. In their feeding sites, predators may increase nutrient availability in the soil and favor plant nutrition and growth. However, the translocation of nutrients from one habitat to another may depend on predator identity and diet, as well as on the amount of prey intake. Here we used isotopic (N-15) and physiological methods in greenhouse experiments to evaluate the effects of the identity of predatory ants (i.e., the consumption of prey and nest sites) on the nutrition and growth of the bromeliad Quesnelia arvensis. We showed that predatory ants with protein-based nutrition (i.e., Odontomachus hastatus, Gnamptogenys moelleri) improved the performance of their host bromeliads (i.e., increased foliar N, production of soluble proteins and growth). On the other hand, the contribution of Camponotus crassus for the nutritional status of bromeliads did not differ from bromeliads without ants, possibly because this ant does not have arthropod prey as a preferred food source. Our results show, for the first time, that predatory ants can translocate nutrients from one habitat to another within forests, accumulating nutrients in their feeding sites that become available to bromeliads. Additionally, we highlight that ant contribution to plant nutrition may depend on predator identity and its dietary requirements. Nest debris may be especially important for epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads in nutrient-poor environments.113Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo scholarship [2011/10137-8]Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao PauloConselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico [2010/17204-0]Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq

    NOVOS REGISTROS DE ESP√ČCIES DE FORMIGAS NEOTROPICAIS NA AMAZ√ĒNIA MERIDIONAL

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    Although they occupy the most varied soil habitats in the forest canopy and are involved in several ecological processes, little is known about the biology and distribution of many species of neotropical ants. In this paper, we communicate the distribution of two rarely sampled ants species and ecological about them. The distribution of Neoponera luteola is extended to another 500 km more in straight line and the distribution of Gnamptogenys caelata is extended to another 1.500 km in straight line from its closest available records from Brazilian Amazon.Keywords: Ants; Mato grosso; Gnamptogenys caelata; Neoponera luteola.Embora ocupem os mais variados habitats do solo e dossel da floresta e estejam envolvidos em v√°rios processos ecol√≥gicos, pouco se conhece sobre a biologia e distribui√ß√£o de muitas esp√©cies de formigas neotropicais. Neste artigo, comunicamos a distribui√ß√£o de duas esp√©cies de formigas raramente amostradas e informa√ß√Ķes ecol√≥gicas sobre elas. A distribui√ß√£o de Neoponera luteola √© expandida em mais de 500 km em linha reta e a distribui√ß√£o de Gnamptogenys caelata √© ampliada por cerca de 1,500 km em linha reta de seus registros mais pr√≥ximos, em uma regi√£o da Amaz√īnia Brasileira.Palavras-chave: Formigas, Mato grosso, Gnamptogenys caelata, Neoponera luteola

    Can Baited Pitfall Traps for Sampling Dung Beetles Replace Conventional Traps for Sampling Ants?

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    Ants¬† and¬† dung¬† beetles¬† are¬† widely¬† used¬† in¬† monitoring¬† biodiversity¬† and¬† are¬† considered¬† excellent¬† environmental¬† indicators.¬† Although¬† the pitfall trap is the most commonly used method to sample dung beetles and ants in ecological studies, beetles are usually sampled using dung‚Äźbaited pitfall traps while ants are sampled using un‚Äźbaited pitfalls. In the protocol for collecting the beetles it is necessary to have attractive baits in pitfalls. In order to minimize collection effort and costs and to facilitate logistics, it is necessary to determine if there is an effect of the baits on the biodiversity of ants collected in the same traps. Therefore, the objective of this work was to find out whether baited pitfalls could replace conventional pitfalls for the capture of ants. In a total of 42 areas of native habitat, three baited pitfall traps and three without bait were installed, all in the same transect, equidistant ten meters and in activity for 48 hours. In total, 150 species were collected, of which 131 were recorded in non‚Äźbaited pitfalls and 107 in baited pitfalls. Traps without bait contributed to 28% of the total number of species captured in this study, whereas pitfalls with bait contributed only to 12% of the total species caught. However, 60% of the total species were captured regardless of the method. In addition to the loss of species among the types of traps, the effect of the method modifies the species composition. We concluded that depending on the type of study, a small decrease in the number of species and change in the composition can influence the results. Thus, we recommend that baited pitfalls should not replace conventional pitfalls.Palavras-chave: M√©todo de coleta; Protocolo de coleta; Desenho da amostra; Esfor√ßo de amostragem

    Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from an Amazonian fragmented landscape, Juara, Mato Grosso, Brazil, with new records of ant species

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    The state of Mato Grosso is the 3rd largest Brazilian state, is covered with three major Brazilian biomes, including the Pantanal, Cerrado, and Amazonia. To date, 449 ant species are recorded in literature for the state. In the present work, we documented the ants sampled along a fragmented landscape, in the municipality of Juara, in the Cerrado-Amazon transition zone in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The ant species were captured with Pitfall traps installed in 20 trails with 10 traps in each (totaling 200). Our results show 151 species, belonging to 43 genera and eight subfamilies, of which 28 species were recorded for the first time in the state and five species recorded for the first time in Brazil. Most genera collected were Pheidole Westwood, 1839 (45 species) followed by Crematogaster Lund, 1831 (11 species). By highlighting species recorded for the first time in state of Mato Grosso and Brazil, we hope to encourage new discoveries and increase the general knowledge of the ant fauna of different biomes in the region

    Report on some neotropical ant studies

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    Stings of ants of the Tribe Ectatommini (Formicidae: Ponerinae)

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    The sting apparatus anatomy is described and compared for 24 species in six of the 9 extant genera of Ectatommini: Paraponera, Acanthoponera, Gnamptogenys, Ectatomma, Proceratium, and Discothyrea. Phylogenetic analysis sorts 15 species of Gnamptogenys into four species groups. Phylogenetic analyses on the six ectatommine genera suggest that: 1) Gnamptogenys and Ectatomma are sister genera, 2) Proceratium and Discothyrea are sister genera, 3) Acanthoponera may be more related to Gnamptogenys and Ectatomma than to the others, and 4) Paraponera may not belong with the other five genera
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