746,287 research outputs found

    Contributions of biotechnology to meeting future food and environmental security needs

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    Biotechnology, including genetic modifications, can play a vital role in helping to meet future food and environmental security needs for our growing population. The nature and use of biotechnology crops are described and related to aspects of food security. Biotechnological applications for food and animal feed are described, together with trends on global adoption of these crops. The benefits of biotechnology crops through increased yield, reduced pesticide use and decreased environmental damage are discussed. Examples of biotechnology crops which do not involve genetic modification are also described. Applications of biotechnology to drought and salt tolerance, and biofortification in which micronutrient content is enhanced are discussed. Emergent technologies such as RNA spraying technology, use of genome editing in agriculture and future targets for improved food and environmental security are considered

    Developing a biotechnology learning hub for New Zealand

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    The article discusses the development of New Zealand's Biotechnology Learning Hub. The authors explains the Biotechnology Learning Hub is an on-line portal developed as a result of initial findings. Its principal aim is to bring the biotechnology and education sectors together in a more sustainable way. The author outlines classroom studies, meetings with the Biotechnolgy industry, and the features of the hub

    AgrEvo: From crop protection to crop production

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    AgrEvo is a German producer of crop protection products. In 1995 it made the strategic decision to shift from crop protection to crop production, with the help of biotechnology. It acquired Plant Genetic Systems (PGS), a successful plant biotechnology company, and started a round of acquisitions in the international seed industry. The company soon found out that biotechnology brings many new uncertainties in strategic decision-making.Includes bibliographical reference

    Scientific innovation for the sustainable development of African agriculture

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    The African continent has considerable potential to reap the benefits associated with modern agricultural biotechnology. Plant biotechnology and breeding represent an invaluable toolbox to face the challenges of African agriculture, such as food and nutrition security, environment protection, soil fertility, and crop adaptation to new climatic conditions. As Africa has only relatively recently adopted agricultural biotechnology, it has the opportunity to harness the immense knowledge gathered over the last two decades while avoiding some of the difficulties experienced by early adopters. High-level research and education systems together with a specific regulatory framework are critical elements in the development of sustainable biotechnology-based agriculture and industry. The more actors that are involved in Research & Development applied to nutritionally and important local crops, the faster Africa will generate its future African innovators. Here, we discuss the contribution of plant biotechnology to a transformative African agriculture that combines intensification of land productivity and environmental sustainability

    Mandatory Labelling or Import Ban?: Two-Country Trade with Biotechnology Products

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    This paper examines trade and welfare effects of biotechnology. While biotechnology lowers production costs, it also lowers perceived quality of products. Without labelling, consumers cannot distinguish between biotechnology and conventional products. In a simple general equilibrium model of two-country trade, it is shown that when a biotechnology product is invented in one country, the importing country may lose from trade under free trade without labelling. The importing country can be better off by requiring labelling for the biotechnology product. If labelling cost is high, however, the importing country may prefer to ban the import of the biotechnology product.biotechnology, genetically modified organisms, mandatory labelling, import ban, credence goods

    Analysis on the evolution and governance of the biotechnology industry of China

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    The past twenty years have witnessed the high-speed growth of China’s biotechnology industry, and this presents an excellent opportunity to examine the changes that have taken place, especially, to carry out overall evaluation and governance analysis from the perspective of technology policies. Although China’s biotechnology industry has achieved tremendous extension both in scale and structure, the strengths it gained from basic research have been significantly weakened by commercialization. This has resulted in the comparatively limited scale of the whole industry, innovation-lacking products, poor output from research and development and scarcity of industrial resources. A large range of literature regarding China’s biotechnology industry attributes these outcomes to vague and even inappropriate governance, findings supported mainly by analyses based on the linear model of impact of government policies on industrial development. In these analyses, government, enterprises and companies as well as R&D organizations are either put on the opposite poles or in a straight line. After examining the nature of China’s biotechnology industry, and in particular the dynamic procedures in research and development, the authors of this paper argue that besides government, enterprises and R&D organizations, a diverse array of factors should be taken into account as we tackle issues emerging in understanding the development of China’s biotechnology industry. Furthermore, these factors, human or nonhuman, should not be arranged as opposing poles or linearly connected points on a straight line. They are in fact all knitted in networks and act as both knitters and knots. China’s biotechnology industry gains its strength to develop and evolve from these networks, thus its governance must be aimed at improving their stability and quality. Although the main disciplinary perspectives of this research are historical and sociological (including identification of the three development stages of biotechnology in China since 1978 to present days), a large number of concepts and ideas from management studies as well as an interdisciplinary approach are also incorporated into the analysis. The main model used in this research is Actor Network Theory, which is employed as a basic theoretical frame. From this starting point the authors attempt to make a closer examination of China’s biotechnology industry both at the level of technology research and development and at the level of commercialization. The modeling process in this research can be regarded as an attempt to explore the social construction of China’s biotechnology industry. The paper reveals how China’s biotechnology industry develops in the form of networks within the country’s social context and what kinds of relationships exist among the relevant factors; therefore, providing guiding insights for improving the governance of China’s biotechnology industry both in policy and management

    Immigrant Entrepreneurs in the Massachusetts Biotechnology Industry (2007)

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    Immigrant entrepreneurs are co-founders in 25.7 percent of Massachusetts Biotechnology firms. In 2006, these immigrant-founded biotechnology companies produced over $7.6 billion dollars in sales and employed over 4,000 workers. The foreign-born founders came from across the globe but in larger numbers from Europe, Canada or Asia. Their firms specialize in the most complex, risky, life science-intensive aspects of biotechnology to seek knowledge directly applicable to human health. Biotechnology is a crucial industry for Massachhusetts and the evidence strongly suggests that immigrants have been key contributors to this industry by establishing new businesses as well as bringing intellectual capital and thereby contributing significantly to the overall economic growth of the Commonwealth

    Space and biotechnology: An industry profile

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    The results of a study conducted by the Center for Space and Advanced Technology (CSAT) for NASA-JSC are presented. The objectives were to determine the interests and attitudes of the U.S. biotechnology industry toward space biotechnology and to prepare a concise review of the current activities of the biotechnology industry. In order to accomplish these objectives, two primary actions were taken. First, a questionnaire was designed, reviewed, and distributed to U.S. biotechnology companies. Second, reviews of the various biotechnology fields were prepared in several aspects of the industry. For each review, leading figures in the field were asked to prepare a brief review pointing out key trends and current industry technical problems. The result is a readable narrative of the biotechnology industry which will provide space scientists and engineers valuable clues as to where the space environment can be explored to advance the U.S. biotechnology industry

    TRENDS IN CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE AND AWARENESS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

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    The promise of agricultural biotechnology has become reality. Foods produced through biotechnology will become increasingly common in the food production and distribution system. Consumer reaction to these foods will be an important factor in determining the ultimate success of the biotechnology enterprise. This paper reviews trends in U.S. consumers' awareness and acceptance of biotechnology. Results of several national surveys show that biotechnology has not been an issue for the vast majority of consumers. Most have a positive attitude about biotechnology. This paper also presents some implications for future research and educational programs.Consumer/Household Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,

    Trust in Scientists and Food Manufacturers, with Implications for the Public Support of Biotechnology

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    The purpose of this paper is to determine what factor affect trust in scientists and food manufacturers, and to examine how trust in these institutions affects public support for biotechnology. Data from the U.S. Biotechnology Study reveal that benefits from biotechnology and expectations of trustworthiness are correlated with trust in scientists, but benefits and costs of biotechnology, and expectations of trustworthiness and competence of biotechnology institutions, are important determinants of trust in food manufacturers. The data also reveal that trust in scientists and food manufacturers has a large and important effect on public support for biotechnology, but trust in scientists is more important for public support than trust in food manufacturers.Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, L65, Q18,
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