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    Intersections of Body Theory and Literary Adaptation in Jane Eyre

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    Abstract of a presentation given at the 2008 Body Project conference at the University of Missouri-Columbia.This presentation was made during the session "Creating a Space for the Female Body."I have recently developed an interest in cinematic body theory and the ways women are presented in mass media. Although current scholars recognize the limitations of psychoanalytic ideologies of spectatorship, their works are still too dependent on theories of the gaze. Scholars should be in search of new ways to theorize the female body in film. I believe that critiquing the gaze is only part of the necessary work: we cannot challenge preexisting models if we do not propose new ones. From my work in literature, I have come to believe that body theory intersects with adaptation studies -- a conflation that has not been widely explored in current scholarship. In this intersection between the two fields of criticism, I find a new model for theorizing the body that does not rely on the psychoanalytic gaze. Screen bodies represent cultural conflicts of what it means to be a woman, both in the society that produces the adaptation and in the society that produced the adapted text

    Targeting human colorectal cancer cells using radiolabeled E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin analogs [abstract]

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    Abstract only availableFaculty Mentor: Dr. Leonard Forte, Biological Engineering and BiologyThe guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor protein is normally expressed at high levels on the luminal surface of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Binding of the endogenous peptides guanylin and uroguanylin to GC-C initiates a signaling cascade, leading to phosphorylation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Phosphorylation of CFTR opens the channel, resulting in net flow of water and Cl- ions into the intestinal lumen. Perhaps via gene transfer from vertebrate hosts, enteropathogenic strains of E. coli have evolved a homologous peptide, the E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STh), which has the highest affinity for the GC-C receptor of any known ligand. Expression of GC-C persists in mucosal cells that have undergone malignant transformation, providing a specific marker for human colorectal cancer. Presentation of the GC-C receptor on the surface of colorectal cancer cells therefore provides a specific target for binding of radiolabeled heat-stable enterotoxin analogs. The goal of the work presented here is to develop analogs of the STh with N-terminal pendant chelating moieties that can deliver imaging and therapeutic radionuclides to primary and metastatic colon cancer tissues. Data will be presented relating to a modified STh analog. This analog has been synthesized and labeled with nonradioactive indium and the radioisotope 111In. The analog was evaluated for receptor binding affinity in vitro, as well as for in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics in SCID mice with human colon cancer xenografts. Receptor binding affinity was in the nanomolar range for both labeled and unlabeled peptides, and in vivo results demonstrated localization of radiolabel within the tumor mass

    In vitro/in vivo assessment of novel 99mTc-bombesin conjugates in human cancer tissue [abstract]

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    Abstract only availableReceptor-specific, radiolabeled peptides are becoming increasingly popular as targeting vectors for the development of new diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals. The over-expression of certain receptors such as the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) on human cancer cells makes this method of drug development a viable tool for tumor targeting in vivo. Breast, pancreatic, prostate, gastric, colon, and small-cell lung cancer have demonstrated GRPr expression. In this project, we have conjugated a diaminoproionic acid (DPR) bifunctional chelator to bombesin (BBN) peptide targeting vector by solid phase peptide synthesis. BBN is an analogue of human gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) that binds to the GRPr with high affinity and specificity. Conjugates of the general structure [DPR-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH2] (X = a series of amino acid pharmacokinetic modifiers) were purified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and characterized by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Radiolabeling investigations of with fac-[99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ (Isolink®) provided for metallated conjugates of the following general structure: [99mTc(CO)3-DPR-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH2]. These new conjugates demonstrated the ability to target specific human tumors in rodent models. Subsequent radiolabeling studies of [DPR-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH2] with fac-[188Re(CO)3(H2O)3]+, the therapeutic surrogate precursor of Tc-99m, have given us the potential to treat specific human tumors via these new targeting vectors. Detailed radiolabeling protocols, in vitro cell binding studies, and in vivo biodistribution assays will be reported.Harry S. Truman Memorial VA Hospita

    A preliminary study of brain laterality in autism via magnetic resonance spectroscopy [abstract]

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    Abstract only availableFaculty Mentor: Judith Miles, Child Health-GeneticsAutism has been regarded as a left-hemisphere dysfunction syndrome due to its prominent deficits in language and motor skills with preservation of spatial processing. The concepts of cerebral dominance and hemispheric asymmetry have been studied since the 19th century and it is well accepted that the two halves of the human brain are structurally and functionally different. To examine laterality in autism, we selected Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) as a suitable technique because it is non-invasive and measures important neurological metabolites. To optimize sample homogeneity, the subjects were matched for age (6.4 yrs ± 5.2 ), diagnosis of non-dysmorphic, normal brain structure by MRI, normal EEG, normal head circumference (0.98 SD ± 1.1), no history of regression, and similar IQS (84 ± 7). Nine autistic children and seven age matched control children scheduled for brain MRI scans were recruited for additional MRS studies under an IRB. A spin-echo PRESS chemical shift imaging sequence with echo time of 30 ms and repetition time of 1500 ms was obtained using a 1.5 Tesla Siemens MRI scanner. Bilaterally symmetrical volumes of interest (VOIs) were selected from both hemispheres in the frontal, temporal, parietal, basal ganglia and cerebellar regions. Focus was on two major resonances, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), which is present almost exclusively in neurons and neuronal processes and is considered a marker of axonal integrity, and choline (Cho) which is marker of cell membrane proliferation or disruption. Creatine (Cr) is used as an internal standard. We report a statistically significant increase in Cho/Cr in the autistic brain (p = 0.02) compared to that of normal controls, and a borderline right shift in Cho/Cr ratio in the cerebellum (p=0.08) in the subjects diagnosed with essential autism (n=5). An increase in choline is suggestive of increased cellular proliferation, which could be a result of membrane degradation or an increase in white matter relative to grey matter in autism.McNair Scholars Program; Children's Miracle Networ

    Anatomical organization of pathways in the locomotor command system of the lamprey [abstract]

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    Abstract only availableFaculty Mentor: Dr. Andrew McClellan, Biological SciencesIn vertebrates, locomotor behaviors are initiated by groups of neurons in the brain, called locomotor command systems, that project to neural networks in the spinal cord, called central pattern generators (CPGs). The output neural elements of the command system are reticulospinal (RS) neurons. The lamprey, a lower vertebrate, is an excellent model for studying locomotion because its swimming behavior is relatively simple and its nervous system is easier to analyze than those of more complex animals. Recent studies using larval sea lamprey (P. marinus) have hypothesized that RS neurons receive inputs from neurons in higher brain areas in the ventromedial diencephalon (VMD) and dorsolateral mesencephalon (DLM) (Paggett et al., in press). For example, VMD- or DLM-initiated locomotor activity is abolished when RS neurons activity is blocked. In addition, injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), an anatomical tracer, in the vicinity of RS neurons retrogradely labels a few neurons in the VMD and DLM. However, the numbers of labeled neurons in the VMD and DLM are lower than we would expect. Therefore, the above model would be significantly strengthened if better anatomical data could be obtained. In the present study, a different anatomical tracer, called biocytin, was injected into reticular nuclei in an attempt to retrogradely label larger numbers of neurons in the VMD and DLM. At present, we have shown that biocytin is an effective retrograde tracer, and we are determining if this technique can be used to support our model of the locomotor command system.Life Sciences Undergraduate Research Opportunity Progra

    Effects of washings and treatments on the usefulness of hair as a biomarker

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    Abstract only availableHair is a useful matrix for the analysis of many trace elements found in the human body. Studies show that hair can incorporate trace metals into its structure during the growth process. Hair is an attractive monitor because unlike blood serum and urine, it is a metabolic end product and therefore inert. It is collected non-invasively, easily stored and disposed. Many studies in the literature attempt to correlate trace elements measured in hair to health, pollution exposure or to disease. Trace elements in hair can be accurately measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Hair samples must be cleaned before analysis to remove external contamination, there are many methods of sample cleaning, however there is not a standardized washing procedure. This study investigates pre and post collection cleaning techniques that may alter observed trace element concentrations in the hair. Two separate, post collection washing methods were studied: the International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, method, and the University of Missouri Research Reactor, MURR, method. The samples were then analyzed for Se, Ti, Mg, Mn, V, I and Zn using INAA at MURR. Selenium concentrations were unchanged. However, all other elements showed a significant reduction in concentration from the MURR to the IAEA method. It was also hypothesized that pre-collection cleaning with shampoos containing EDTA, a chelating agent, may be responsible for leaching some trace metals from hair. In order to determine the effects of shampoos on the sample, hair from a single subject was treated with three different types of shampoo. Two solutions of each shampoo were prepared in a 1:4, shampoo:water ratio. The hair was then washed in these solutions for either 1 or 24 hours for each type of shampoo. Hair washed with shampoo containing selenium sulfide resulted in a large selenium contamination despite cleaning with both the IAEA and MURR methods. The large variability between the post-collection cleaning techniques shows that a standard preparation method must be established before hair can be accurately used as a biomarker. Further studies must be done to determine if pre-collection shampoo treatment affects the validity of hair as a biomarker for trace elements.NSF-REU/NIH Program in Radiochemistr

    Identification of chloroplast DNA insertions in nuclear chromosomes of maize B73 line using the FISH procedure

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    Abstract only availableIt is known that chloroplast DNA can incorporate itself into the nuclear genome of plants. However, the sites of chloroplast (ct) DNA integration into chromosomes of maize have not yet been analyzed. This project is the first attempt to find the location of the ctDNA on the maize chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization is a technique that has proved useful in karyotyping and chromosomal mapping in maize. The FISH procedure is being used in this study to discover the location of the ctDNA in the nuclear genome of the inbred line B37. In order to develop ctDNA “probes” for FISH analysis, we have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to produce fragments of ctDNA. Primers were chosen to amplify fragments of 10 kb or larger. The amplified DNAs were purified and labeled with fluorescent dyes and these probes were subsequently hybridized to chromosomes. The probes recognize and bind to the corresponding DNA sequences within the chromosomes. Root tip cells were used to prepare the slides for hybridization. Because the cells are collected during the metaphase stage of division, the chromosomes are compact and more easily visible. Chromosomes that contain ctDNA can be detected using a compound microscope with fluorescent attachments. The location of the ctDNA on the chromosomes is made visible by the fluorescent labeling of the probe. Eight of eleven regions of the chloroplast genome of the B73 line have been specifically amplified and have been observed under the microscope for FISH analysis. This information will contribute to an understanding of the extent and mechanism of transfer of organellar genomes to the nucleus.MU Monsanto Undergraduate Research Fellowshi


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    Histology blog entry for October 20, 2008 about pleura


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    Histology blog entry for November 21, 2008 about the pancreas

    External Genitalia-Male

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    Histology blog entry for February 6, 2009 about male external genitalia


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