227,732 research outputs found

    A study of thirty alcoholic male patients referred to the Washingtonian Hospital by social agencies

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    Thesis (M.S.)--Boston University, 1948. This item was digitized by the Internet Archive

    The genus Hebeloma in the alpine belt of the Carpathians including two new species

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    Between 2002 and 2012 regular visits to the Carpathians were made and a number of Hebeloma spp. were collected from the alpine area. In total 44 collections were made that represent 11 species, two of which, Hebeloma grandisporum and H oreophilum, are described here as new. Of the 11 species, four (H alpinum, H marginatulum and the two species described as new) are known only from alpine or Arctic habitats. Hebeloma dunense and H mesophaeum are commonly found in, but not restricted to, alpine habitats. The other five species (H aanenii, H laterinum, H naviculosparum, H vaccinum, H velutipes) are usually found in lowland or boreal habitats. Hebeloma naviculosporum is reported for the first time from the alpine zone and H alpinum for the first time as growing with Helianthemum. All but two species (H alpinum, H marginatulum) are reported for the first time from the Carpathian alpine zone. In this paper we discuss the habitat, the 11 recorded species and give detailed descriptions of the two new species, both morphologically and molecularly. A key for Hebeloma species from sect. Hebeloma occurring in Arctic-alpine habitats is provided

    Evaluation of political control instruments for the Swiss alpine region

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    This paper analyses different direct payments system for the Swiss alpine region based on the multi-agent model SWISSland. Moreover, the future demand and management of the alpine pastures are simulated under different scenarios until 2020. In the model, agents are representing existing summer farms and are able to interact with each other. The results imply that the current direct payment system for the Swiss alpine region is effective and able to maintain a stable development until 2020. Since the land management in the alpine region is the activity that provides public goods, it would be reasonable to enforce payments that maximize the area of summered land. A change to contributions coupled to the surfaces could achieve the desired management of the alpine pastures meaning, at the same time, a need of proper monitoring systems.multi-agent models, policy analysis, simulation, alpine region, Agricultural and Food Policy, C16, Q18.,

    An overview of atmospheric deposition chemistry over the Alps: present status and long-term trends

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    Several research programs monitoring atmospheric deposition have been launched in the Alpine countries in the last few decades. This paper uses data from previous and ongoing projects to: (i) investigate geographical variability in wet deposition chemistry over the Alps; (ii) assess temporal trends of the major chemical variables in response to changes in the atmospheric emission of pollutants; (iii) discuss the potential relationship between the status of atmospheric deposition and its effects on forest ecosystems in the alpine and subalpine area, focusing particularly on nitrogen input. We also present results of studies performed at a local level on specific topics such as long-term changes in lead deposition and the role of occult deposition in total nitrogen input. The analysis performed here highlights the marked geographical variability of atmospheric deposition in the Alpine region. Apart from some evidence of geographically limited effects, due to local sources, no obvious gradients were identified in the major ion deposition. The highest ionic loads were recorded in areas in the foothills of the Alps, such as the pre-alpine area in North-Western Italy and the area of Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Trend analysis shows a widespread decrease in the acidity of precipitation in the last 15–20 years as a consequence of the reduced emission of S compounds. On the other hand, nitrate concentrations in rain have not changed so much, and ammonium has decreased significantly only at the Austrian sampling sites. The deposition of N is still well above the estimated critical loads of nutrient N at some forest sites in the alpine and subalpine areas, thus confirming the critical situation of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems regarding N inputs. Existing data highlights the importance of continuously monitoring atmospheric deposition chemistry in the Alpine area, taking account of acidifying elements, nutrients and other pollutants such as heavy metals and organic compounds. There is also a need for unifying sampling and analytical methods in order to obtain comparable data from the different regions of the Alps

    Benthic macro invertebrate communities of high conservation value Thirsty and Little Thirsty Lagoons, Cape Barren Island, Tasmania

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    This study represents the first account of the invertebrate ecology and biology of the estuarine Thirsty and Little Thirsty coastal lagoons on Cape Barren Island, Tasmania. Due to its remoteness, Thirsty Lagoon is one of the most pristine coastal lagoon systems in Tasmania and is, therefore, an important reference point against which to measure future human impacts in coastal lagoons in the Bass Strait islands, and in south-eastern Australia generally. The system comprises two interconnected lagoons. The lower of the two lagoons, Thirsty Lagoon, is connected to the sea by an open channel allowing tidal exchange. This exchange maintains salinities in the lower reaches at or near seawater concentrations. As the basin is shallow, rates of evaporation are high, particularly in summer, elevating salinity levels and resulting in periodic drying-out of sections of the lagoonal system. At the time of our visit in late summer, freshwater input from feeder streams was minimal and there was little tidal exchange between Thirsty and, the upper lagoon, Little Thirsty. As a consequence salinities in Little Thirsty were very high (ca. 60). These coastal lagoons, and one other sampled, supported a low diversity of invertebrate fauna that is typical of coastal lagoons elsewhere in Tasmania. The fauna included marine polychaete worms, molluscs, small crustaceans and high densities of a dipteran larvae in Little Thirsty Lagoon. The fauna found in the lower reaches of Thirsty Lagoon include a number of invertebrate species that are typically marine in origin, while the upper reaches were dominated by species that commonly occur in estuaries elsewhere, albeit in low salinity or brackish waters. Despite very high salinities and periodic evaporation, Little Thirsty and Thirsty lagoons supported high densities of invertebrates that may constitute an important food source for visiting migratory and wading birds

    Pre-Alpine and Alpine deformation at San Pellegrino pass (Dolomites, Italy)

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    In this work, we present the geological map of the San Pellegrino pass, inserted in the spectacular scenario of the Dolomiti region (Southern Alps, Italy), at a scale of 1:10.000 and accompanied by geological cross-sections. The detailed distinction of lithological thin units allowed to achieve a consistent interpretation of the local structural setting by drawing brittle and ductile Alpine tectonic deformations. The differential deformation and structural styles within the geological map are the result of the different rheological nature of volcanic and sedimentary rocks, as well as of the superimposition of compressional Alpine tectonics over Permo-Mesozoic extensional tectonic phases, and consequent reactivation of inherited structures

    Crustal structure and apparent tectonic underplating from receiver function analysis in South Island, New Zealand

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    We utilize seismic converted phases on more than 700 receiver functions calculated for 42 stations in the South Island, New Zealand, to infer crustal and uppermost mantle structure. We determine the crustal thickness from direct observations of conversion from the Moho interface and infer zone of the maximum thickness being located along the axis of the Southern Alps, just east from the Alpine fault. The crustal root widens from north to south in the direction perpendicular to the Alpine fault and appears to have an asymmetric structure. Stations in the alpine portion of island show evidence for prominent midcrustal conversions. Significant crustal thickening is developed in response to both the convergent component of the motion on the Alpine fault and subduction in the Fiordland region. We propose two models for a strong uppermost mantle conversion that occurs at depths between 33 and 83 km on 16 stations and forms a large continuous feature along the east coast and in the central portions of the South Island. Our preferred model attributes upper mantle conversion to tectonically underplated oceanic crust formed by late Oligocene-Miocene spreading between the Australian and Pacific plates, which was detached from the Australian plate and tectonically underplated under the South Island. An alternative model attributes the upper mantle conversions to long-lived seismic fabric created by subduction of the Gondwanaland margin

    Field Notes for the Alpine Tundra by Elena Johnson

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    Review of Elena Johnson\u27s poetry collection, Field Notes for the Alpine Tundra

    Low-temperature thermochronology and thermokinematic modeling of deformation, exhumation, and development of topography in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand

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    Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He and fission track ages were obtained from ridge transects across the central Southern Alps, New Zealand. Interpretation of local profiles is difficult because relationships between ages and topography or local faults are complex and the data contain large uncertainties, with poor reproducibility between sample duplicates. Data do form regional patterns, however, consistent with theoretical systematics and corroborating previous observations: young Neogene ages occur immediately southeast of the Alpine Fault (the main plate boundary structure on which rocks are exhumed); partially reset ages occur in the central Southern Alps; and older Mesozoic ages occur further toward the southeast. Zircon apparent ages are older than apatite apparent ages for the equivalent method. Three-dimensional thermokinematic modeling of plate convergence incorporates advection of the upper Pacific plate along a low-angle detachment then up an Alpine Fault ramp, adopting a generally accepted tectonic scenario for the Southern Alps. The modeling incorporates heat flow, evolving topography, and the detailed kinetics of different thermochronometric systems and explains both complex local variations and regional patterns. Inclusion of the effects of radiation damage on He diffusion in detrital apatite is shown to have dramatic effects on results. Geometric and velocity parameters are tuned to fit model ages to observed data. Best fit is achieved at 9 mm a−1 plate convergence, with Pacific plate delamination on a gentle 10°SE dipping detachment and more rapid uplift on a 45–60° dipping Alpine Fault ramp from 15 km depth. Thermokinematic modeling suggests dip-slip motion on reverse faults within the Southern Alps should be highest ∼22 km from the Alpine Fault and much lower toward the southeast