78,763 research outputs found

    The Voting Behaviour of the Irish parliamentary party on social issues in the House of Commons 1881-90

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    Most studies of the Irish Parliamentary party and its leaders have, understandably, focused on issues directly concerning Ireland. There have been relatively few studies of the role of the Parliamentary party in broader British politics, particularly in relation to social issues. In order to assess this issue over a period of time, this study examines the division lists of the House of Commons in relation to votes on selected ‘social’ issues in the 1880s. An analysis of the Irish Parliamentary party’s voting record in the 1880s throws some light on the party’s broader views on social issues. The study examines the voting behaviour of the Irish Parliamentary party in the context of that of the other major political groupings in the 1880s Parliament. It looks in particular at i) The extent to which the Irish party members actually voted in comparison with MPs overall; ii) the internal cohesion of the Irish Parliamentary party votes, i.e. the extent to which those members voting expressed the same views; iii) their ‘likeness’ with the voting patterns of other major political groupings, i.e. the extent to which the Irish party votes were in line with other groups; and iv) the extent to which (if any) this changed over time.Roll-call voting analysis; Irish parliamentary party; social issues; nineteenth century Irish history

    Laser-induced isotopic selectivity in the resonance ionization of Os

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    Isotope selective effects in resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) pose a potentially serious limitation to the application of this technique to the precise and reproducible measurement of isotope ratios. In order to identify some of the underlying causes of isotope selectivity in RIMS and to establish procedures for minimizing these effects, we investigated laser-induced isotope selectivity in the resonance ionization of Os. A single-color, one-photon resonant ionization scheme was used for several different transitions to produce Os photoions from a thermal atomization source. Variations in Os isotope ratios were studied as a function of laser parameters such as wavelength, bandwidth, power and polarization state. Isotope selectivity is strongly dependent on laser power and wavelength, even when the bandwidth of the laser radiation is much larger than the optical isotope shift. Variations in the ^(190)Os/^(188)Os ratio of ≈20% for a detuning of 0.8 cm^(−1) were observed on a transition with a small oscillator strength. Large even—odd isotope selectivity with a 13% depletion of ^(189)Os was observed on a ΔJ = +1 transition at low laser intensity; the odd mass Os isotopes are systematically depleted. For ΔJ = −1 and 0 transitions the isotope selectivity was reduced by polarization scrambling and for strongly saturating conditions. A technique employing the wavelength dependence of even—even isotope selectivity as an internal wavelength standard was developed to permit accurate and reproducible wavelength adjustment of the laser radiation. This technique provides control over laser-induced isotope selectivity for single-color ionization and enabled us to obtain reproducible measurements of ^(192)Os/^(188)Os and ^(189)Os/^(190)Os ratios in the saturation regime for a ΔJ = +1 transition with a precision of better than 0.5%. The application of this wavelength-tuning procedure should significantly improve the quality of RIMS isotope ratio data for many elements

    Construction in Italy's regions, 1861-1913

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    This paper presents time-series estimates of construction activity in the regions of post-Unification Italy. Total construction followed very different time paths, reflecting the sharply local cycles in railway construction. Other public works were less idiosyncratic; the boom of the Giolitti years was widely diffused, but that of the 1880s was much more concentrated in Latium and Liguria. In the construction of buildings, the Giolittian boom was marked in the North and Center, but spotty in the South and major islands; earlier swings were comparatively minor, save of course for the 1880s bubble in Latium. Over the long term, railway construction was, per-capita, relatively evenly spread. Other social-overhead construction displays a similar pattern, but with exceptionally high levels in Latium and Liguria. Building construction seems instead to have declined somewhat from North to South; Liguria was again the overall leader, with Latium second.

    Exhibition Season: Annual Archaeological Exhibitions in London, 1880s-1930s

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    Annual archaeological exhibitions were a visible symbol of archaeological research. Held mainly in London, the displays encapsulated a network of archaeologists, artists, architects and curators, and showcased the work of the first generations of trained archaeologists. The exhibition catalogues and published reviews of the displays provide a unique method for exploring the reception and sponsorship of archaeological work overseas and its promotion to a fascinated, well connected and well moneyed public. The exhibitions were a space in which conversation and networking were as important as educational enrichment. This paper analyses the social history of the “annual exhibition” in archaeology, highlighting the development and maintenance of the networks behind archaeological research, the geography of London as a way to examine influence in archaeology, and the utility of exhibitions for archaeological publicity during this period of exploration

    Competition in the Underwriting Markets of Sovereign Debt: The Baring Crisis Revisited

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    Flores discusses the bargaining power of Argentina\u27s federal government relative to that of the underwriting banks. It examines how the financial intermediaries\u27 gatekeeping function eroded when faced with increased competition. Under normal circumstances, underwriters should have impeded Argentinean access to capital markets or at least hardened the terms under which Argentina could borrow

    Selling to reluctant drinkers : the British wine market, 1860-1914

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    Attempts to stimulate wine drinking in Britain in the early 1860s succeeded in tripling wine imports, but this increase proved short lived, and per caput consumption was no greater in 1914 than it had been in 1815. Supply volatility, together with difficulties in establishing impersonal exchange mechanisms in place of those based on the personal reputation of economic agents, made it difficult to create a mass market. Not only did consumers receive insufficient information to identify quality prior to purchase, but the high price of some wines also encouraged cheap imitations, some of which were prejudicial to the health of the drinker.Publicad

    The Introduction of the Reserve Clause in Major League Baseball: Evidence of its Impact on Select Player Salaries During the 1880s

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    This paper investigates the introduction of the reserve clause in Major League Baseball during the 1880s. Taking advantage of a unique data set describing the salaries for twenty nine high-quality players throughout the decade of the 1880s, we investigate the impact of the reserve clause as it evolved from a "gentleman's agreement" to a formal contract stipulation. We test three specific hypotheses concerning the reserve clause: its effect on average salaries, on the remuneration to marginal product, and the premium paid to a player for changing teams. The evidence suggests that introducing the reserve clause reduced average salaries and the premium for changing teams; detectable monopsony power was transferred to team owners almost immediately. However, there was no statistically significant impact of the reserve clause on how much players were paid for their marginal product. The empirical results indicate that reserve clause shifted considerable monopsony power to team owners immediately after it was instituted.Sports economics, monopsony, free agency, negotiation
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