15 research outputs found

    Research into the possibility of harmonisation between Latin letters and Chinese characters in an urban visual system

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    This practice-based research thesis uses the design of a dual script typeface for the Latin and Chinese writing systems to find ways of improving visual harmonisation and legibility in information signage in transit systems. Currently, the Chinese transport system lacks standards for ensuring uniformity. As a result, the unconsidered use of incompatible Latin and Chinese typefaces for signage may interfere with readability and legibility. Such an approach is also inappropriate for projecting an international image for modern Chinese society and maintaining public perception and trust. This research includes a review of relevant literature resources, qualitative and quantitative methods, and the outcomes of the practice process. An appendix provides a detailed account of the working practice. The findings of this research identified common features in the proportion and structure of Latin letters and Chinese characters. The type design practice confirmed the feasibility of applying similar strokes from these writing systems within a geometric common grid system, to design a typeface that gives an optically balanced appearance to Latin letters and Chinese characters when used together. The thesis makes both theoretical and practical contributions to the field of multi-script typeface design, providing a common design principle to assist in the design of dual Latin-Chinese typefaces, improving their visual harmonisation while retaining legibility and cultural identity. This principle may be applicable not only to the Latin and Chinese writing systems, but also for other writing systems that may require the design of dual-or multi-script fonts. This research also provides an insight into the application of a geometric approach to create systematic practice tools to improve working efficiency and concludes that so long as designers find the commonality between different scripts and respect the traditional culture and rules, this is a viable method for improving the visual harmonisation between different writing systems

    Data_Sheet_1_Clinical significance of the C-reactive protein-to-bilirubin ratio in patients with ulcerative colitis.docx

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    BackgroundUlcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing remitting disease of the colon. Appropriate monitoring of the disease status is necessary for patients to adopt optimal therapy and obtain a better prognosis. Finding an ideal non-invasive biomarker, which is suitable for long-term monitoring in clinical settings will bring a significant benefit to the individualized management of patients with UC. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical significance of a novel optimizing serological biomarker by integrating C-reactive protein (CRP) and bilirubin levels in monitoring disease activity.MethodsA total of 182 patients with UC were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters of the subjects were retrieved from the electronic medical record database of our hospital. The CRP-to-bilirubin ratio (CBR) was computed for clinical activity of UC defined by the partial Mayo score and endoscopic activity by the Mayo endoscopic score (MES).ResultsCBR was significantly elevated in patients with UC than that in healthy controls. Patients with clinically or endoscopically active UC showed evidently higher CBR levels compared to those with inactive disease, even in a subset of patients with normal CRP levels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of CBR was higher than that of CRP or bilirubin alone for determining clinical remission and endoscopic mucosal improvement. Furthermore, CBR levels were significantly decreased when patients achieved mucosal improvement compared with when they had active endoscopic inflammation.ConclusionCBR could be useful to reflect disease activity in patients with UC.</p

    DS2 enhances agonist binding in δ-subunit containing receptors.

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    <p>The δ-subunit specific modulator, DS2, modulates [<sup>3</sup>H]muscimol binding (2 nM) in α4β3N-Flag-δ GABA<sub>A</sub>Rs. For the membranes, the data are the mean and standard deviation of two experiments, and for micelle reconstituted receptors for a single experiment in triplicate. The curves were fitted by nonlinear least squares to the Hill equation. The EC<sub>50</sub> (μM), Hill coefficient and maximum modulation were: for membranes, 2.0 ± 0.7 μM, 0.9 ± 0.2, 139 ± 4%; for reconstituted 2.3 ± 0.8 μM, 1.2 ± 0.5, 132 ± 4%.</p

    The binding isotherm of the agonist [<sup>3</sup>H]muscimol to the α4β3N-Flag-δ GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor in native membranes and reconstituted into CHAPS/lipid micelles.

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    <p>Binding curves of [<sup>3</sup>H]muscimol to α4β3N–Flag–δ GABA<sub>Α</sub>Rs, both, in cell membranes (pmol/mg membrane protein) and after purification and reconstitution into micelles of 5 mM CHAPS and 200 μM DOPC:DOPS:Cholesterol in mole ratio 52:15:33 (pmol/mL). Displaceable binding was determined as the difference between binding in the presence and absence of 1 mM GABA using a filtration assay in triplicate. The displaceable binding and its standard deviation was determined by subtracting these two values and propagating errors at each total muscimol concentration. The curves were fitted by nonlinear least squares with weighting by standard deviation. These yielded apparent dissociation constants of 9.2 ± 0.6 and 35 ± 12 nM, respectively. The B<sub>max</sub> of the membranes was 22.6 ± 0.5 pmol/mg and for reconstituted receptors in micelles was 19 ± 3 pmol/mL. The Hill coefficients differed little from one (1.07 ± 0.3 and 0.90 ± 0.05 respectively).</p

    All subunits of the α4β3N-Flag-δ GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor are glycosylated.

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    <p>Purified receptors were resolved by Western blotting with antibodies for α4- and β3-subunits or Flag, as shown on the left, middle and right panels, respectively. In each of the three panels, reading left to right the lanes are: purified receptor; purified receptor after deglycosylation with PNGase F, and PNGase F alone. The band below the 43 kDa marker was nonspecific and associated with PNGase F. Numbers on the left side indicate MW in kDa. The α4 and β3 antibodies are polyclonal. Brightness and contrast were uniformly adjusted for each panel.</p

    Stability of the α4-subunit.

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    <p>(<b>A</b>) Western blot depicting fragmentation of α4-subunit seen as two bands in N-Flag-α4β3 and α4β3N-Flag-δ receptors reconstituted into CHAPS/asolectin micelles is presented. Both α4 bands are identified by polyclonal anti-α4 and monoclonal anti-Flag antibodies in the former receptor, confirming identity of the band. Numbers on the side indicate the position of the molecular weight markers (kDa). (<b>B</b>) Cells induced to express indicated GABA<sub>A</sub>Rs were prepared for Western blotting by either 1. suspending cells in suspension buffer; 2. suspending and sonicating; 3. leaving in a monolayer (untreated); or 4. lysing directly in the well with suspension buffer supplemented with 10 mM DDM; as indicated, prior to lysing cells with a 4x Laemmli sample buffer with 10% β-mercaptoethanol. Suspension buffer was supplemented with Protease Inhibitor Cocktail (Sigma) at 1:100 dilution. (<b>C</b>) Representative Western blot of samples obtained during α4β3N-Flag-δ receptor purification, as described in the materials and methods section. Numbers under each lane indicate the fraction the lower band comprises of the higher band, expressed as percentile points. (<b>D</b>) Membrane fraction from the α4β3N-Flag-δ was incubated for 1 hour at indicated temperatures prior to analysis by Western blotting. All blots are presented as grayscale and were uniformly adjusted for brightness and contrast to facilitate analysis. Full immunoblots used to make panels A-D are presented as <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0191583#pone.0191583.s004" target="_blank">S4</a>–<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0191583#pone.0191583.s007" target="_blank">S7</a> Figs.</p

    The gating properties of α4β3N–Flag–δ GABA<sub>A</sub>Rs.

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    <p>(<b>A</b>) GABA concentration-response curve for α4β3N–Flag–δ receptor mediated currents. Currents were elicited by application of varying concentrations of GABA (0.1–10 mM). Peak current amplitudes in each cell were normalized to that obtained with 10 mM GABA. (<b>B</b>) Representative current trace obtained by application of an 8.5 ms pulse of 100 μM GABA to measure the deactivation rate. (<b>C</b>) α4β3N–Flag–δ receptors are spontaneously open. (Left panel) Representative trace of outward currents observed by application of 2 mM Picrotoxin to inhibit the spontaneously open receptors. (Right panel) The estimate of the maximum inward currents obtained by co-application of 10 mM GABA with 10 μM Etomidate to gate all available receptors. The gray lines are drawn by eye to represent the baseline. At least three cells per concentration were used throughout experiments.</p

    The δ-subunit is expressed in the α4β3N–Flag–δ GABA<sub>A</sub>R stable cell line.

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    <p>Representative current traces show the effect of DS2 (<b>A</b>) and Etomidate (<b>B</b>) on 10 mM GABA–elicited currents on α4β3N–Flag–δ (upper panel) compared to N–Flag–α4β3 (lower panel). Currents were elicited in a notch protocol by an eight second pulse of GABA, during which drug was co-applied for 4 seconds 1 second after the GABA perfusion started. Concentrations are indicated in the figure.</p

    Antibiotic comparisons in children with intussusception after air enema reduction in two phases (n,%).

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    <p>Phase I: preintervention; Phase II: postintervention</p><p>Antibiotic comparisons in children with intussusception after air enema reduction in two phases (n,%).</p

    A colorimetric assay for vanillin detection by determination of the luminescence of o-toluidine condensates

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    <div><p>Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), a food additive with rich milk flavor, is commonly used in the food, beverage and cosmetic industries. However, excessive consumption of vanillin may cause liver and kidney damage. Therefore, methods for detecting and controlling the level of vanillin in food, especially in infant powder, have important practical significance. In this study, we established a colorimetric assay for vanillin detection. The detection was performed under high-temperature and acidic conditions, which can induce the reaction of the aldehyde group of vanillin with the amino group of o-toluidine. The resulting product had a maximum absorption at 363 nm, which was quantified by a UV spectrophotometer. This assay had a limit of detection (<i>LOD</i>) of 1 pg mL<sup>−1</sup> and a linear range between 1 μg mL<sup>−1</sup> and 100 μg mL<sup>−1</sup>. The average recoveries at three spiked levels were in the range from 91.1% to 101.6% with a relative standard deviation (<i>RSD</i>) of 4.62% ~ 7.27%.</p></div
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