198 research outputs found

    A1F-B, a novel CCAAT-binding transcription activator that interacts with the aldolase B promoter

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    AbstractWe describe here a 70 kDa transcription factor A1F-B, which preferentially binds to an element encompassing a CCAAT motif on the rat aldolase B promoter. Comparison of binding specificities, relative molecular masses, and subunit compositions with those of other known CCAAT-binding factors indicated that A1F-B is a novel member of CCAAT-binding factors

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Kernohan\u27s Notch in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Significance of Coronal Images for Preoperative Diagnosis

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    A 67-year-old man presented with headache and gait disturbance. On admission, he was mildly confused but aroused by verbal stimulus, with normal motor function. A CT scan showed bilateral subdural hematomas (right >> left) and a midline shift to the left. One hour after admission, he suddenly became somnolent and developed right hemiparesis. While repeated CT examinations failed to reveal new findings, coronal MRI clearly depicted the left cerebral peduncle pressed against the free edge of the tentorium. Craniotomy was immediately performed to remove the right chronic subdural hematoma. Soon after the operation, neurological functions were markedly improved. When paradoxical (ipsilateral to the lesion) motor deficit is observed in patients with head injuries, including cases of chronic subdural hematomas, coronal MR imaging and magnetic resonance angiography should be immediately performed to detect Kernohan\u27s notch and to rule out other possible complications, such as diffuse axonal injury or cerebral stroke

    Long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids improve endothelial function with altering microbial flora

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    Fish oil-derived long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFAs) with a carbon chain length longer than 18 units ameliorate cardiovascular risk in mice. In this study, we investigated whether LCMUFAs could improve endothelial functions in mice and humans. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multi-center study, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either an LCMUFA oil (saury oil) or a control oil (olive and tuna oils) group. Sixty subjects were enrolled and administrated each oil for 4 weeks. For the animal study, ApoE−/− mice were fed a Western diet supplemented with 3% of either gadoleic acid (C20:1) or cetoleic acid (C22:1) for 12 weeks. Participants from the LCMUFA group showed improvements in endothelial function and a lower trimethylamine-N-oxide level, which is a predictor of coronary artery disease. C20:1 and C22:1 oils significantly improved atherosclerotic lesions and plasma levels of several inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α. These beneficial effects were consistent with an improvement in the gut microbiota environment, as evident from the decreased ratio of Firmicutes and/ or Bacteroidetes, increase in the abundance of Akkermansia, and upregulation of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-induced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) expression and serum GLP-1 level. These data suggest that LCMUFAs alter the microbiota environment that stimulate the production of SCFAs, resulting in the induction of GLP-1 secretion. Fish oil-derived long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids might thus help to protect against cardiovascular disease

    Efficacy of Brazilian Propolis against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Mice and Their Modes of Antiherpetic Efficacies

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    Ethanol extracts (AF-06, 07, and 08, 10 mg/kg) of Brazilian propolis were administered orally to cutaneously herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected mice three times daily on days 0 to 6 after infection to evaluate their efficacies against HSV-1 infection and significantly limited development of herpetic skin lesions. AF-07 and 08 significantly reduced virus titers in brain and/or skin on day 4 without toxicity, but AF-08 had no anti-HSV-1 activity in vitro. AF-06 and 08 significantly enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to inactivated HSV-1 antigen in infected mice. Oral AF-08-administration significantly augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes of HSV-1-infected mice, while direct exposure of splenocytes of infected mice to AF-06 significantly elevated IFN-γ production in vitro. Thus, AF-08 might have components that are active in vivo even after oral administration and those of AF-06 might be active only in vitro. Because DTH is a major host defense for intradermal HSV-1 infection, augmentation of DTH response by AF-06 or 08, directly or indirectly, respectively, may contribute to their efficacies against HSV-1 infection. In addition, AF-06 and 07 possibly contain anti-HSV-1 components contributing to their efficacies. Such biological activities of Brazilian propolis may be useful to analyze its pharmacological actions

    WHATS-3: An Improved Flow-Through Multi-bottle Fluid Sampler for Deep-Sea Geofluid Research

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    Deep-sea geofluid systems, such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, are key to understanding subseafloor environments of Earth. Fluid chemistry, especially, provides crucial information toward elucidating the physical, chemical, and biological processes that occur in these ecosystems. To accurately assess fluid and gas properties of deep-sea geofluids, well-designed pressure-tight fluid samplers are indispensable and as such they are important assets of deep-sea geofluid research. Here, the development of a new flow-through, pressure-tight fluid sampler capable of four independent sampling events (two subsamples for liquid and gas analyses from each) is reported. This new sampler, named WHATS-3, is a new addition to the WHATS-series samplers and a major upgrade from the previous WHATS-2 sampler with improvements in sample number, valve operational time, physical robustness, and ease of maintenance. Routine laboratory-based pressure tests proved that it is suitable for operation up to 35 MPa pressure. Successful field tests of the new sampler were also carried out in five hydrothermal fields, two in Indian Ocean, and three in Okinawa Trough (max. depth 3,300 m). Relations of Mg and major ion species demonstrated bimodal mixing trends between a hydrothermal fluid and seawater, confirming the high quality of fluids sampled. The newly developed WHATS-3 sampler is well-balanced in sampling capability, field usability, and maintenance feasibility, and can serve as one of the best geofluid samplers available at present to conduct efficient research of deep-sea geofluid systems

    High-dose Dexamethasone Therapy as the Initial Treatment for Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: Protocol for a Multicenter, Open-label, Single Arm Trial

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    Standard therapy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has not been established. We are conducting a multicenter, prospective trial to determine the efficacy and safety of short-term, high-dose dexamethasone therapy in ITP patients aged 18-80 years with platelet counts of <20, 000 /μL, or with <50, 000/ μL and bleeding symptoms. The primary endpoints of this trial are the proportion of responses (complete plus partial response) on day 180 (day 46+180) after the completion of the 46-day high-dose dexamethasone therapy. The results of this investigation of the effectiveness and safety of this regimen will be essential for the establishment of standard therapy for ITP

    Management of Occluded Metallic Stents in Malignant Hilar Biliary Stricture

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    Background/Aims: Little is known about the management of occluded multiple metallic stent (MS) deployed in malignant hilar biliary strictures (HBS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic management of occluded multiple MSs deployed in HBS. Methodology: Fifty-five patients with unresectable biliary tract carcinoma had multiple MSs inserted due to HBS. The endoscopic intervention through the duodenal papilla was performed on 30 cases that had MS occlusion. The procedure success rate, the survival time after the procedure and the number of endoscopic interventions before death were analyzed, retrospectively. Results: The causes of MS obstruction were tissue ingrowth (n=20), sludge (n=7), tumor overgrowth (n=2), and hemobilia (n=1). Endoscopic cleaning or deployment of plastic stents or metallic stents was performed on these patients and was successfully accomplished only via the transpapillary approach. The survival time after MS obstruction was 219 days. The median number of endoscopic interventions before death was 3. The median interval of endoscopic intervention after the first plastic stent occlusion was 84 days. Conclusions: Our long-term data regarding the endoscopic management of occluded MSs deployed in malignant hilar biliary strictures are acceptable although the patency time of plastic stents deployed after MS occlusion was relatively short

    Successful Treatment for Hepatic Encephalopathy Aggravated by Portal Vein Thrombosis with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration

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    This report presents the case of a 78-year-old female with hepatic encephalopathy due to an inferior mesenteric venous-inferior vena cava shunt. She developed hepatocellular carcinoma affected by hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and underwent posterior sectionectomy. Portal vein thrombosis developed and the portal trunk was narrowed after hepatectomy. Portal vein thrombosis resulted in high portal pressure and increased blood flow in an inferior mesenteric venous-inferior vena cava shunt, and hepatic encephalopathy with hyperammonemia was aggravated. The hepatic encephalopathy aggravated by portal vein thrombosis was successfully treated by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration via a right transjugular venous approach without the development of other collateral vessels

    Cytokeratin 13, Cytokeratin 17, and Ki-67 Expression in Human Acquired Cholesteatoma and Their Correlation With Its Destructive Capacity

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    Objectives Cholesteatoma is a nonneoplastic destructive lesion of the temporal bone with debated pathogenesis and bone resorptive mechanism. Both molecular and cellular events chiefly master its activity. Continued research is necessary to clarify factors related to its aggressiveness. We aimed to investigate the expression of Ki-67, cytokeratin 13 (CK13) and cytokeratin 17 (CK17) in acquired nonrecurrent human cholesteatoma and correlate them with its bone destructive capacity. Methods A prospective quantitative immunohistochemical study was carried out using fresh acquired cholesteatoma tissues (n=19), collected during cholesteatoma surgery. Deep meatal skin tissues from the same patients were used as control (n=8). Cholesteatoma patients were divided into 2 groups and compared (invasive and noninvasive) according to a grading score for bone resorption based upon clinical, radiologic and intraoperative findings. To our knowledge, the role of CK17 in cholesteatoma aggressiveness was first investigated in this paper. Results Both Ki-67 and CK17 were significantly overexpressed in cholesteatoma than control tissues (P<0.001 for both Ki-67 and CK17). In addition, Ki-67 and CK17 were significantly higher in the invasive group than noninvasive group of cholesteatoma (P=0.029, P=0.033, respectively). Furthermore, Ki-67 and CK17 showed a moderate positive correlation with bone erosion scores (r=0.547, P=0.015 and r=0.588, P=0.008, respectively). In terms of CK13, no significant difference was found between cholesteatoma and skin (P=0.766). Conclusion Both Ki-67 and CK17 were overexpressed in cholesteatoma tissue and positively correlated with bone resorption activity. The concept that Ki-67 can be a predictor for aggressiveness of cholesteatoma was supported. In addition, this is the first study demonstrating CK17 as a favoring marker in the aggressiveness of acquired cholesteatoma
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