260 research outputs found

    Cross-display attention switching in mobile interaction with large displays

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    Mobile devices equipped with features (e.g., camera, network connectivity and media player) are increasingly being used for different tasks such as web browsing, document reading and photography. While the portability of mobile devices makes them desirable for pervasive access to information, their small screen real-estate often imposes restrictions on the amount of information that can be displayed and manipulated on them. On the other hand, large displays have become commonplace in many outdoor as well as indoor environments. While they provide an efficient way of presenting and disseminating information, they provide little support for digital interactivity or physical accessibility. Researchers argue that mobile phones provide an efficient and portable way of interacting with large displays, and the latter can overcome the limitations of the small screens of mobile devices by providing a larger presentation and interaction space. However, distributing user interface (UI) elements across a mobile device and a large display can cause switching of visual attention and that may affect task performance. This thesis specifically explores how the switching of visual attention across a handheld mobile device and a vertical large display can affect a single user's task performance during mobile interaction with large displays. It introduces a taxonomy based on the factors associated with the visual arrangement of Multi Display User Interfaces (MDUIs) that can influence visual attention switching during interaction with MDUIs. It presents an empirical analysis of the effects of different distributions of input and output across mobile and large displays on the user's task performance, subjective workload and preference in the multiple-widget selection task, and in visual search tasks with maps, texts and photos. Experimental results show that the selection of multiple widgets replicated on the mobile device as well as on the large display, versus those shown only on the large display, is faster despite the cost of initial attention switching in the former. On the other hand, a hybrid UI configuration where the visual output is distributed across the mobile and large displays is the worst, or equivalent to the worst, configuration in all the visual search tasks. A mobile device-controlled large display configuration performs best in the map search task and equal to best (i.e., tied with a mobile-only configuration) in text- and photo-search tasks

    Factors influencing visual attention switch in multi-display user interfaces: a survey

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    Multi-display User Interfaces (MDUIs) enable people to take advantage of the different characteristics of different display categories. For example, combining mobile and large displays within the same system enables users to interact with user interface elements locally while simultaneously having a large display space to show data. Although there is a large potential gain in performance and comfort, there is at least one main drawback that can override the benefits of MDUIs: the visual and physical separation between displays requires that users perform visual attention switches between displays. In this paper, we present a survey and analysis of existing data and classifications to identify factors that can affect visual attention switch in MDUIs. Our analysis and taxonomy bring attention to the often ignored implications of visual attention switch and collect existing evidence to facilitate research and implementation of effective MDUIs.Postprin

    Cue Now, Reflect Later: A Study of Delayed Reflection of Diary Events

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    Diary studies require participants to record entries at the moment of events, but the process often distracts the participants and disrupts the flow of the events. In this work, we explore the notion of delayed reflection for diary studies. Users quickly denote cues of diary events and only reflect on the cues later when they are not busy. To minimize disruptions, we employed a squeeze gesture that is swift and discreet for denoting cues. We investigated the feasibility of delayed reflection and compared it against a conventional digital diary that requires users to reflect immediately at the time of entry. In a weeklong field study, we asked participants to record their daily experiences with both types of diaries. Our results show that users’ preference is context-dependent. Delayed reflection is favored for use in contexts when interruptions are deemed inappropriate (e.g. in meetings or lectures) or when the users are mobile (e.g. walking). In contrast, the users prefer immediate reflection when they are alone, such as during leisure and downtime

    Creating an Understanding of Data Literacy for a Data-driven Society

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    Society has become increasingly reliant on data, making it necessary to ensure that all citizens are equipped with the skills needed to be data literate. We argue that the foundations for a data literate society begin by acquiring key data literacy competences in school. However, as yet there is no clear definition of what these should be. This paper explores the different perspectives currently offered on both data and statistical literacy and then critically examines to what extent these address the data literacy needs of citizens in today’s society. We survey existing approaches to teaching data literacy in schools, to identify how data literacy is interpreted in practice. Based on these analyses, we propose a definition of data literacy that is focused on employing an inquiry-based approach to using data to understand real world phenomena. The contribution of this paper is the creation of a common foundation for teaching and learning data literacy skills

    Factors Affecting Secondary School Principals’ Time Management Practices in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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    This study sought to investigate whether principal’s age, gender, administrative experience, training in time management area, school’s nature, level, location and complexity has any effect on the time management practices. Six time management practices used by secondary school principals i.e. scheduling contacts, managing meetings, delegating tasks, setting priorities, managing paperwork, handling interruptions were incorporated in a questionnaire. A questionnaire was designed, validated and administered to respondents for collecting data having Cronbach Alpha value of 0.864. Data were collected from 344 secondary school principals selected through stratified random sample from seven divisional headquarter districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Results show that principal’s administrative experience and school’s level have significant effect on principals’ time management practices. Whereas principal’s age, gender, training in time management area, school’s nature, location and complexity have no significant effect on principals’ time management practices. It was recommended that introductory courses, refresher courses, workshops, and seminars on time management practices should be included in in-service training program for principals to equip them with skills, knowledge and attitude on adequate time management practices regardless of their personal characteristics and school’s level, location, nature and complexity

    The digital brain switch: managing rapid transitions between role identities in a digital world

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    In this paper, we present initial findings from an EPSRC-sponsored multi-disciplinary research project investigating how digital technologies and social media affect role transitions across work-life domains. The research uses an innovative combination of visual diaries and narrative interviews to capture micro-transitions (‘switches’) and explore these with participants in the context of their overall lives. Findings from a pilot study with academics are reported here in terms of: emergent digital boundary management strategies; triggers for rapid switching and the effects of this; and the function of meta roles and multi-role cognitions. The research contributes to current thinking in work-life literature in terms of devising innovative methods, focusing on the micro- transitional and in considering the role of the digital and social media in boundary management

    Study the Level of Awareness Among Housewives About Environmental Education

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    The purpose of this paper was to study the level of awareness among housewives about environmental education. For this task review of existing literature was carried out. Being descriptive study, survey method was adopted for data collection. A group of 50 housewives from Bahawalnagar District of Division Bahawalpur was recognized as sample to accomplish the study. Closed ended questionnaire for housewives were developed on Likert scale and data was collected. Data collected through questionnaire was tabulated, analysis and discussed. The analysis was arranged on the basis of respondents and the housewives’ opinions were analyzed. The result from the findings of this study showed that active learning of the housewives has appeared with the expansion of their actions in the Green Future. With the presence at the Eco conductors Training course as an opening, they come to join in the Eco conducting Activity and developed Green Future into an essential association connected to the eco-environment in the society. Their Eco-conducting movement was based on the outcome of knowledge from the teaching courses, in which the accessible expert in Eco conducting skilled them. At the end some recommendations were made to improve housewives’ skills and awareness about environmental education

    Audit Quality and Creative Accounting Strategy: Evidence from Nigerian Public Listed Companies

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    The purpose of this study is to provide an empirical evidence on the relationship between audit quality and creative accounting strategy evidence from Nigerian Public Listed companies. Using a panel data set of all companies listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) for the period of nine years from 2010-2018. This paper employs 84 companies listed on the board of NSE with 756 firm-year observations. The study used secondary method to retrieve data from the annual reports of the listed companies and Thompson Reuters DataStream. The study employs multiple regression to examine the relationship between audit quality and creative accounting strategy. The results of the study displayed an insignificant negative relationship between audit fee and creative accounting strategy. This shows that changes in audit fee is not in anywhere associated with creative accounting strategy. Audit size is found to be insignificant and positive relationship with creative accounting strategy. This implies that audit size may not limit managers opportunistic behavior toward engaging in creative accounting strategy. However, a significant positive relationship was found between audit independence and creative accounting strategy. This implies that the more independence an audit firm enjoys, the more creative accounting strategy engaged by managers. Finally, our findings suggest that regulators of the Nigeria capital market should reform the audit market so as to ensure that audit firms would carry out the audit assignment in such a way to mitigate and prevent managers on engaging in fraudulent creative accounting strategy
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