367 research outputs found

    Supporting Answerers with Feedback in Social Q&A

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    Prior research has examined the use of Social Question and Answer (Q&A) websites for answer and help seeking. However, the potential for these websites to support domain learning has not yet been realized. Helping users write effective answers can be beneficial for subject area learning for both answerers and the recipients of answers. In this study, we examine the utility of crowdsourced, criteria-based feedback for answerers on a student-centered Q&A website, Brainly.com. In an experiment with 55 users, we compared perceptions of the current rating system against two feedback designs with explicit criteria (Appropriate, Understandable, and Generalizable). Contrary to our hypotheses, answerers disagreed with and rejected the criteria-based feedback. Although the criteria aligned with answerers' goals, and crowdsourced ratings were found to be objectively accurate, the norms and expectations for answers on Brainly conflicted with our design. We conclude with implications for the design of feedback in social Q&A.Comment: Published in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual ACM Conference on Learning at Scale, Article No. 10, London, United Kingdom. June 26 - 28, 201

    PlanFitting: Tailoring Personalized Exercise Plans with Large Language Models

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    A personally tailored exercise regimen is crucial to ensuring sufficient physical activities, yet challenging to create as people have complex schedules and considerations and the creation of plans often requires iterations with experts. We present PlanFitting, a conversational AI that assists in personalized exercise planning. Leveraging generative capabilities of large language models, PlanFitting enables users to describe various constraints and queries in natural language, thereby facilitating the creation and refinement of their weekly exercise plan to suit their specific circumstances while staying grounded in foundational principles. Through a user study where participants (N=18) generated a personalized exercise plan using PlanFitting and expert planners (N=3) evaluated these plans, we identified the potential of PlanFitting in generating personalized, actionable, and evidence-based exercise plans. We discuss future design opportunities for AI assistants in creating plans that better comply with exercise principles and accommodate personal constraints.Comment: 22 pages, 5 figures, 1 tabl

    Type 1 Diabetes in the BB Rat: A Polygenic Disease

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    OBJECTIVE-Two type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes have been identified in the spontaneously diabetic biobreeding diabetes-prone (BBDP) rat, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (RT1) class II u haplotype (Iddm1) and Gimap5 (Iddm2). The strong effects of these have impeded previous efforts to map additional loci. We tested the hypothesis that type 1 diabetes is a polygenic disease in the BBDP rat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-We performed the most comprehensive genome-wide linkage analysis for type 1 diabetes, age of disease onset (AOO), and insulitis subpheno- types in 574 F2 animals from a cross-intercross between BBDP and type 1 diabetes-resistant, double congenic ACI.BBDP- RT1u,Gimap5 (ACI.BB 1ulyp) rats, where both Iddm1 and Iddm2 were fixed as BBDP. RESULTS-A total of 19% of these F2 animals developed type 1 diabetes, and eight type 1 diabetes susceptibility loci were mapped, six showing significant linkage (chromosomes 1, 3, 6 [two loci], 12, and 14) and two (chromosomes 2 and 17) suggestive linkage. The chromosomes 6, 12, and 14 intervals were also linked to the severity of islet infiltration by immunocytes, while those on chromosomes 1, 6 (two loci), 14, 17, and a type 1 diabetes-unlinked chromosome 8 interval showed significant linkage to the degree of islet atrophy. Four loci exhibited suggestive linkage to AOO on chromosomes 2 (two loci), 7, and 18 but were unlinked to type 1 diabetes. INS, PTPN22, IL2/IL21, C1QTNF6, and C12orf30, associated with human type 1 diabetes, are contained within the chromosomes 1, 2, 7, and 12 loci. CONCLUSIONS-This study demonstrates that the BBDP diabetic syndrome is a complex, polygenic disease that may share additional susceptibility genes besides MHC class II with human type 1 diabetes

    Clinical Study of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Barrett's Esophagus Patients

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    Prior research strongly implicates gastric acid and bile acids, two major components of the gastroesophageal refluxate, in the development of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and its pathogenesis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been shown to protect esophageal cells against oxidative stress induced by cytotoxic bile acids. We conducted a pilot clinical study to evaluate the clinical activity of UDCA in patients with BE. Twenty-nine BE patients received UDCA treatment at a daily dose of 13–15 mg/kg/day for six months. The clinical activity of UDCA was assessed by evaluating changes in gastric bile acid composition and markers of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8OHdG), cell proliferation (Ki67), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3, CC3) in BE epithelium. The bile acid concentrations in gastric fluid were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. At baseline, UDCA (sum of unchanged and glycine/taurine conjugates) accounted for 18.2% of total gastric bile acids. Post UDCA intervention, UDCA increased significantly to account for 93.39% of total gastric bile acids (p<0.0001). The expression of markers of oxidative DNA damage, cell proliferation, and apoptosis was assessed in the BE biopsies by immunohistochemistry. The selected tissue biomarkers were unchanged after 6 months of UDCA intervention. We conclude that high dose UDCA supplementation for six months resulted in favorable changes in gastric bile acid composition but did not modulate selected markers of oxidative DNA damage, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in the BE epithelium

    Detection of transcriptional difference of porcine imprinted genes using different microarray platforms

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    BACKGROUND: Presently, multiple options exist for conducting gene expression profiling studies in swine. In order to determine the performance of some of the existing microarrays, Affymetrix Porcine, Affymetrix Human U133+2.0, and the U.S. Pig Genome Coordination Program spotted glass oligonucleotide microarrays were compared for their reproducibility, coverage, platform independent and dependent sensitivity using fibroblast cell lines derived from control and parthenogenic porcine embryos. RESULTS: Array group correlations between technical replicates demonstrated comparable reproducibility in both Affymetrix arrays. Glass oligonucleotide arrays showed greater variability and, in addition, approximately 10% of probes had to be discarded due to slide printing defects. Probe level analysis of Affymetrix Human arrays revealed significant variability within probe sets due to the effects of cross-species hybridization. Affymetrix Porcine arrays identified the greatest number of differentially expressed genes amongst probes common to all arrays, a measure of platform sensitivity. Affymetrix Porcine arrays also identified the greatest number of differentially expressed known imprinted genes using all probes on each array, an ad hoc measure of realistic performance for this particular experiment. CONCLUSION: We conclude that of the platforms currently available and tested, the Affymetrix Porcine array is the most sensitive and reproducible microarray for swine genomic studies

    Ovarian reserve diminished by oral cyclophosphamide therapy for granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's)

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    Objective Standard treatment for severe granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA) is daily oral cyclophosphamide (CYC), a cytotoxic agent associated with ovarian failure. In this study, we assessed the rate of diminished ovarian reserve in women with GPA who received CYC versus methotrexate (MTX). Methods Patients in the Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial received either daily CYC or weekly MTX and were randomized to etanercept or placebo. For all women ages <50 years, plasma samples taken at baseline or early in the study were evaluated against samples taken later in the study to compare levels of anti‐Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle‐stimulating hormone (FSH), endocrine markers of remaining egg supply. Diminished ovarian reserve was defined as an AMH level of <1.0 ng/ml. Results Of 42 women in this analysis (mean age 35 years), 24 had CYC exposure prior to enrollment and 28 received the drug during the study. At study entry, women with prior CYC exposure had significantly lower AMH, higher FSH, and a higher rate of early menstruation cessation. For women with normal baseline ovarian function, 6 of 8 who received CYC during the trial developed diminished ovarian reserve, compared to 0 of 4 who did not receive CYC ( P < 0.05). Changes in AMH correlated inversely with cumulative CYC dose ( P < 0.01), with a 0.74 ng/ml decline in AMH level for each 10 gm of CYC. Conclusion Daily oral CYC, even when administered for less than 6 months, causes diminished ovarian reserve, as indicated by low AMH levels. These data highlight the need for alternative treatments for GPA in women of childbearing age.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/88079/1/20605_ftp.pd
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