East Tennessee State University

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    27627 research outputs found

    Conversion of Microcrystalline Cellulose to Hexane Using Hydrogenated Metal Oxides at Low Temperature and Pressure

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    Increasing global energy demand and environmental concerns have fueled the exploration of sustainable and efficient methods for renewable fuel production. The conversion of cellulosic waste to hydrocarbon fuels using hydrogenated metal oxides presents a novel and eco-friendly approach to sustainably address energy demand. In this study, hydrogenated metal oxides were used as catalysts in a relatively low-temperature and atmospheric-pressure environment to facilitate the conversion of cellulosic waste into hydrocarbon fuels. Hydrogenated metal oxides have been introduced as potential hydrogen transfer catalysts. The expected result is the selective conversion of cellulose to hexane at relatively low temperatures, which significantly reduces energy consumption compared to traditional high temperature conversion techniques. The use of XPell R resulted in 2,000 ppm hexane in dodecane. Although the use of hydrogenated metal oxides for cellulosic waste conversion is promising, ongoing research and optimization efforts are crucial to enhance the catalyst efficiency and increase the yield

    The Implications, Magnitude, and Development of Traumatic Brain Injury for Individuals Undergoing Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder

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    There is an established bidirectional relation between substance use and traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Despite the high rate of prescribing opioids for pain management following a TBI and the epidemic of opioid use disorder (OUD) in the United States, scarce research has specifically analyzed the association between TBI and OUD. In a series of three interrelated manuscripts, the present study will first examine the prevalence and features of TBIs among persons seeking treatment for OUD. Next, the present study will evaluate the association between TBI and indicators of risky health behaviors and OUD severity, including the risk of overdose and polysubstance use. The predictive ability of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, impulsivity, depression, and chronic pain on odds of having had a TBI will also be calculated. Last, a systematic review will be conducted to provide comprehensive guidelines for effective methods of tailoring OUD treatment to mitigate the effects of TBI on treatment outcomes. Altogether, the findings will aid in the understanding of the development of TBI for persons with OUD, provide insight into common clinical complexities for patients with OUD and TBI, and offer guidance on how best to tailor interventions to increase substance use treatment efficacy for persons with TBI

    Stigma Reduction and Resiliency Training for First Responders (SRRT-FR): A Feasibility and Initial Efficacy Evaluation

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    First responders, especially law enforcement, frequently encounter individuals experiencing substance use concerns. Previous research has documented that a greater understanding of substance use disorders promotes a decrease in stigmatizing perspectives. We present a novel approach to training law enforcement officers to improve their interactions with community members exhibiting substance use disorders, while also promoting their professional well-being. The present study sought to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the Stigma Reduction and Resiliency Training for First Responders (SRRT-FR) in a sample of law enforcement officers, as well as its efficacy in decreasing stigmatizing perspectives towards substance use disorders and increasing professional resiliency. One hundred and ten law enforcement officers participated in SRRT-FR and completed pre-, post- (n = 77), and four-month follow-up (n = 42) surveys that assessed their perceptions towards individuals with substance use disorders, as well as their well-being within their profession. Preliminary results suggest that SRRT-FR is feasible and acceptable amongst officers and may decrease some stigmatizing perspectives and increase resiliency. The findings warrant replication with larger sample sizes and randomized controlled trials involving law enforcement officers, as well as other first responders

    Symptom Clusters in Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

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    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) presents the criteria for Gambling Disorder (GD) as a unidimensional construct where each additional symptom corresponds to increased severity. Many individuals experience addiction symptoms in specific symptom clusters, with membership to one profile of symptoms or other better-representing disorder severity than raw symptom counts. This study explored whether similarly informative symptom clusters exist among adults seeking treatment for gambling harms. The sample included 444 adults (Mage= 44.95) who completed an assessment of DSM criteria for GD at intake. Through a latent class analysis of GD criteria, three distinct classes were identified: a “Hurt but Hiding” class, a “High Distress but Hopeful” class, and a highest-risk class of gamblers. Statistically significant differences were found in the clinical covariates of gambling behavior, cognitive distortions, and gambling-related self-efficacy and the demographic variables of ethnicity, having children under the age of 18, and employment status. Results indicate heterogeneity of individuals seeking treatment from gambling harms. Future areas of research are discussed

    Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Functioning: A Mediation Analysis of Difficulties in Emotional Regulation

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    Sexual dysfunction can lead to a negative impact upon a person’s mental and relational health, including relational and overall distress, poor relationship and sexual satisfaction, and clinical mood disorders such as depression. Moving upstream to identify factors that may predict sexual dysfunction would therefore be beneficial for early intervention in at-risk populations. History of childhood trauma is one such factor that may influence sexual functioning later in life. While adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been less studied in association with sexual dysfunction, there is some evidence to indicate that they may be related. ACEs have been shown to increase the risk of physical and psychological conditions (such as physical inactivity, obesity, heart disease, substance use, depression, and anxiety) which can then impede sexual functioning; further, a study of sex therapy patients found that their ACE scores were significantly higher than those in community samples. Additionally, difficulties in emotion regulation (DERS) may also play an important role in this relationship, as they have been shown to mediate the relationship between ACEs and several subsequent health risks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a significant relationship between ACEs and sexual problems, and further, if emotion regulation difficulties mediated this relationship. College students (N = 696) were recruited to complete an online survey of their health behaviors. The overall mediated model was significant, F(2, 692) = 5.78, p = .003, but explained only 1.6% of the variance in sexual functioning. Although ACEs significantly predicted both sexual functioning (b = 0.60, t(694) = 3.40, p \u3c 0.001) and DERS (b = 2.08, t(694) = 4.83, p \u3c 0.001), DERS did not significantly predict sexual functioning (b = -0.01, t(694) = -0.63, p = 0.52), and did not emerge as a significant mediator of the relationship between ACEs and sexual functioning (b = -.02, CI [-.08,.05]). Further, in contrast to hypotheses, participants with higher ACE scores actually reported higher sexual functioning relative to participants with lower ACE scores in this sample. Results highlight the complexities of the relationship between ACEs and current sexual functioning. While difficulties in emotion regulation are still likely to be clinically significant for individuals with trauma histories, they do not appear to be a major contributing factor to difficulties in sexual functioning

    Exploring Knowledge and Perceptions of Nursing Students: A Quantitative Study on Sexual Assault and Sex Trafficking Awareness

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    This study aims to explore nursing students\u27 knowledge and perceptions of identifying and treating victims of sexual assault and sex trafficking. Survey data was collected from second to fifth semester nursing students in Eastern Tennessee. The study aims to identify students\u27 perceptions of medical personnel\u27s ability to identify and treat sexual assault and sex trafficking victims, examine whether adherence to myths affects knowledge and confidence levels, determine students\u27 confidence in identifying and treating victims, and evaluate whether demographic characteristics affect identification and treatment. Results will help improve our approach towards these issues

    Supplemental Materials for How diverse, equitable, and inclusive are open and affordable course materials?

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    Supplemental materials for Sergiadis, A. D. R., Smith, P. A., Uddin, M. M. (January 2024). How diverse, equitable, and inclusive are open and affordable course materials? College & Research Libraries (Special Issue on Open and Equitable Scholarly Communication). Supplemental materials include the following: Appendix A: Student Survey Appendix B: Instructor Survey Appendix C: Coding Categories Student Survey Responses Faculty Survey Response

    Associative Stigma among Criminal Legal Staff: Measurement and Relation to Job Factors

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    A sizeable portion of the United States (U.S.) population works within the criminal legal system, and individuals who have legal involvement are a highly stigmatized population. Research suggests working with stigmatized populations can result in the transfer of stigma to professionals, referred to as associative stigma. While qualitative studies indicate there are negative perceptions related to working in criminal legal settings, there is no quantitative research on criminal legal staff’s experience with associative stigma and how it impacts job-related factors. The purpose of this study was to 1) examine the psychometrics of an adapted measure to quantitatively assess associative stigma among criminal legal staff, 2) explore individual differences in staff’s associative stigma, and 3) investigate associative stigma’s relationship with influential job factors. An online sample of criminal legal staff in the U.S. (n=198) were recruited to complete an adapted version of the Clinician Associative Stigma Scale (Yanos et al., 2017) along with measures of demographics, stigmatizing attitudes toward justice-involved people, and job-related factors (e.g., orientation toward punishment, burnout). An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors in the adapted-CASS named “negative stereotypes of working in criminal legal settings” and “discomfort with disclosure.” Regarding individual differences in associative stigma, those who were younger, worked fewer years with justice-involved individuals, and worked in probation agencies reported experiencing more negative stereotypes of working in criminal legal settings. Staff who had daily (as opposed to less frequent) contact with justice-involved individuals reported more discomfort with disclosure. Regarding associative stigma’s impact on job-related factors, experiences with negative stereotypes of working in criminal legal settings and discomfort with disclosure were related to greater emotional exhaustion. Further, as staff endorsed more discomfort with disclosure, they indicated greater punitive orientation, turnover intention, plans to leave their jobs, and less job satisfaction. Overall, results suggest that associative stigma has a negative impact on job-related factors among criminal legal staff. Therefore, examining ways to support staff and reduce associative stigma’s impact may address some of the challenges of working in the criminal legal system

    Electrochemiluminescence using Pencil Graphite Electrodes and Screen-printed Carbon Electrodes Interfaced with a Simple Imaging System

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    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) is a phenomenon whereby electrochemical reactions generate a product that is capable of emitting light. ECL’s high sensitivity, selectivity, extremely low background, and relatively simple instrumentation make it particularly well-suited for chemical sensing and biosensing strategies. Here we report a simple ECL imaging system based on a camera interfaced with a zoom lens to compare pencil graphite electrode (PGE) and screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) arrays as ECL platforms. With this system, ECL signals generated from tris(2,2′- bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride hexahydrate ([Ru(bpy)3]2+) using co-reactant tri-n-propylamine (TPA) were linear with respect to [Ru(bpy)3]2+ concentrations from 9 to 450 μM. Detection limits for [Ru(bpy)3]2+ were found to be 1.8 μM with PGEs and 0.9 μM with SPCEs. Immobilization of a thin polyvinylpyridine (PVP) film ECL reporter [Ru(bpy)2(PVP)10]2+ on SPCEs was also investigated. Overall, the combination of PGEs or SPCEs with the simple ECL imaging system offers a cost-effective approach to ECL-based sensing and biosensing

    Physiological Adaptations Following a Strength Endurance Training Block Performed with Accentuated Eccentric Loading or Traditional Resistance Training

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    Physiological adaptations were investigated following a strength-endurance (S-E) block prescribed with accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) or traditional resistance training (TRAD). Recreationally trained participants (n = 11 males, 6 females, age = 23.2 ± 4.2 yrs, body mass (BM) = 81.3 ± 22.2 kg, height = 172.1 ± 10 cm) completed a four-week block of concurrent resistance, sprint, and change of direction training. Participants were assigned one of two training conditions, AEL (n = 9) or TRAD (n = 8). Training was identical, except AEL performed 110% eccentric overloading every 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th repetition during back squat (BS) and bench press (BP). Body composition, summated muscle size (ACSAsum) and thickness (MTsum), regional ACSA and MT, and region-specific fascicle angle (FA) and length (FL) were assessed pre- (PRE) and post-training (POST). External work was calculated and exercise displacement was measured to determine the mechanical stimulus provided. Physiological variables were analyzed using multiple mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA). External work and displacement were analyzed with independent Welch’s t-tests. A statistically significant main effect of Time was observed for ACSAsum and ICW (p \u3c 0.05); however, there were no statistically significant Time x Condition interaction effects observed for any dependent variable (p \u3e 0.05). Time x Length interaction effects also failed to reach statistical significance for regional ACSA or regional MT (p \u3e 0.05). Moreover, Time x Position interaction effects were not statistically significant for regional MT (p \u3e 0.05). There were also no statistically significant interaction effects observed for regional FA or FL (p \u3e 0.05). Differences in external work did not reach statistical significance (p \u3e 0.05). A four-week S-E training block, performed with or without AEL, increases muscle size, but results in only minor architectural alterations. Additionally, AEL appears to induce unique region-specific hypertrophy. In contrast, TRAD seems to induce greater increases in ICW, potentially indicating greater sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. Interestingly, 110% eccentric overloading did not lead to statistically greater work performed, although differences may be practically significant when allometrically scaled. Researchers and practitioners should examine region-specific musculoskeletal adaptations, when possible, to more accurately assess training effects


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