38 research outputs found

    Numerical study of the effects of boundary conditions on the measurement and calibration of gardon type heat flux sensors

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    To monitor the high-intensity heat flux conditions that occur in the space shuttle main engine (SSME), it is necessary to use specifically designed heat flux sensors. These sensors, which are of the Gardon-type, are exposed on the measuring face to high-intensity radiative and convective heat fluxes and on the other face to convective cooling. To improve the calibration and measurement accuracy of these gauges, researchers are studing the effect that the thermal boundary conditions have on gauge performance. In particular, they are studying how convective cooling effects the field inside the sensor and the measured heat flux. The first phase of this study involves a numerical study of these effects. Subsequent phases will involve experimental verification. A computer model of the heat transfer around a Garden-type heat flux sensor was developed. Two specific geometries are being considered are: (1) heat flux sensor mounted on a flat-plate; and (2) heat flux sensor mounted at the stagnation point of a circular cylinder. Both of these configurations are representative of the use of heat flux sensors in the components of the SSME. The purpose of the analysis is to obtain a temperature distribution as a function of the boundary conditions

    Analysis of the transient calibration of heat flux sensors: One dimensional case

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    The effect of transient heat flux on heat flux sensor response and calibration is analyzed. A one dimensional case was studied in order to elucidate the key parameters and trends for the problem. It has the added advantage that the solutions to the governing equations can be obtained by analytic means. The analytical results obtained to date indicate that the transient response of a heat flux sensor depends on the thermal boundary conditions, the geometry and the thermal properties of the sensor. In particular it was shown that if the thermal diffusivity of the sensor is small, then the transient behavior must be taken into account

    The impact of biological bedforms on near-bed and subsurface flow: a laboratory evaluated numerical study of flow in the vicinity of pits and mounds

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    The complex surface topography of river substrates controls near-bed hydraulics and drives the exchange of subsurface and surface flow. In rivers, the topographic structures that are studied are usually formed by the flow but, it is known that many animals also create biogenic bedforms, such as pits and mounds. Here, a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model of flow over a pit and a mound is evaluated with flume experiments. The model includes actual bedform topography, and the topographic complexity of the surrounding bed surface. Subsurface grains are organized in a body-centered cubic packing arrangement. Model evaluation showed strong agreement between experimental and modelling results for velocity (R2 > 0.8) and good agreement for Reynolds stresses (R2 > 0.7), which is comparable to other similar studies. Simulation of the pit shows that the length of the downwelling region is smaller than the upwelling region and that the velocity magnitude is higher in the downwelling region. Simulation of the mound reveals that the flow is forced into the bed upstream of the mound and re-emerges near the top of the mound. The recirculation zone is limited at the leeside of the mound. With increasing Reynolds number, the depth of the upwelling region at the leeside of the mound increases. The analysis of shear stress indicates that sediments on the upstream edge of the pit and on the downstream face of the mound are relatively unstable. These results demonstrate the effect of biogenic structures on the near-bed flow field, hyporheic exchange, and sediment stability

    Computational Fluid Dynamics of Catalytic Reactors

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    Today, the challenge in chemical and material synthesis is not only the development of new catalysts and supports to synthesize a desired product, but also the understanding of the interaction of the catalyst with the surrounding flow field. Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD is the analysis of fluid flow, heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions by means of computer-based numerical simulations. CFD has matured into a powerful tool with a wide range of applications in industry and academia. From a reaction engineering perspective, main advantages are reduction of time and costs for reactor design and optimization, and the ability to study systems where experiments can hardly be performed, e.g., hazardous conditions or beyond normal operation limits. However, the simulation results will always remain a reflection of the uncertainty in the underlying models and physicochemical parameters so that in general a careful experimental validation is required. This chapter introduces the application of CFD simulations in heterogeneous catalysis. Catalytic reactors can be classified by the geometrical design of the catalyst material (e.g. monoliths, particles, pellets, washcoats). Approaches for modeling and numerical simulation of the various catalyst types are presented. Focus is put on the principal concepts for coupling the physical and chemical processes on different levels of details, and on illustrative applications. Models for surface reaction kinetics and turbulence are described and an overview on available numerical methods and computational tools is provided

    Defects in tRNA Modification Associated with Neurological and Developmental Dysfunctions in Caenorhabditis elegans Elongator Mutants

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    Elongator is a six subunit protein complex, conserved from yeast to humans. Mutations in the human Elongator homologue, hELP1, are associated with the neurological disease familial dysautonomia. However, how Elongator functions in metazoans, and how the human mutations affect neural functions is incompletely understood. Here we show that in Caenorhabditis elegans, ELPC-1 and ELPC-3, components of the Elongator complex, are required for the formation of the 5-carbamoylmethyl and 5-methylcarboxymethyl side chains of wobble uridines in tRNA. The lack of these modifications leads to defects in translation in C. elegans. ELPC-1::GFP and ELPC-3::GFP reporters are strongly expressed in a subset of chemosensory neurons required for salt chemotaxis learning. elpc-1 or elpc-3 gene inactivation causes a defect in this process, associated with a posttranscriptional reduction of neuropeptide and a decreased accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. elpc-1 and elpc-3 mutations are synthetic lethal together with those in tuc-1, which is required for thiolation of tRNAs having the 5′methylcarboxymethyl side chain. elpc-1; tuc-1 and elpc-3; tuc-1 double mutants display developmental defects. Our results suggest that, by its effect on tRNA modification, Elongator promotes both neural function and development

    Experimental study of heat conduction through rarefied gases contained between concentric cylinders.

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    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Thesis. 1965. M.S.Bibliography: leaves 45-53.M.S