583 research outputs found

    Intercultural ethics: questions of methods in language and intercultural communication

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    This paper explores how questions of ethics and questions of method are intertwined and unavoidable in any serious study of language and intercultural communication. It argues that the focus on difference and solution orientations to intercultural conflict has been a fundamental driver for theory, data collection and methods in the field. These approaches, the paper argues, have created a considerable consciousness raising industry, with methods, trainings and ‘critical incidents’, which ultimately focus intellectual energy in areas which may be productive in terms of courses and publications but which have a problematic basis in their ethical terrain. Dieser Artikel untersucht wie ethische und methodische Fragen nicht nur ineinander greifen, sondern in keiner ernstzunehmenden Studie ueber Sprache und interkulturelle Kommunikation ausgelassen werden duerfen. Es wird hier argumentiert, dass der Schwerpunkt auf Verschiedenheit und Problemorientierung im interkulturellen Konflikt einen wesentlichen Einfluss auf theoretische Entwicklungen, Datenerhebung und Methoden in diesem Bereich hatte. Dieser Artikel legt auch dar, wie diese Ansaetze eine betraechtliche ‘Bewusstseinsbildungs – Branche' erzeugt haben, mit Methoden, Trainings, und ‘kritischen Interaktionssituationen’, welche letztendlich allen intellektuellen Arbeitseifer auf Bereiche konzentriert hat, die zwar ertragreich sind in Bezug auf Kurse und Publikationen, jedoch eine problematische Grundlage im ethischen Bereich aufweisen

    Competences for democratic culture: An empirical study of an intercultural citizenship project in language pedagogy

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    This article reports on a pedagogical intervention in foreign language teaching in higher education. It analizes the competences developed by Argentinian and UK-based students as they used Skype to design a leaflet that addressed a real world issue: the Argentinian military dictatorship and its manipulation of the 1978 Football World Cup. The data consists of students’ discussions of this highly disturbing human rights issue. A first level of analysis focused on identifying evidence of competences using the Council of Europe’s conceptual model of ‘competences for democratic culture’ (2016). In a second level of analysis, the data was categorized within the framework of Article 2.2 of the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training (2011). This research study provides an empirical test of these two frameworks in the field of language education, an aspect that has not been investigated before. It also contributes to our understanding of the potential of intercultural citizenship projects in achieving the goals of human rights education in foreign language teaching. Results indicate the development of substantial competences for democratic culture defined in the Council of Europe’s model

    Competences for democratic culture: An empirical study of an intercultural citizenship project in language pedagogy

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    This article reports on a pedagogical intervention in foreign language teaching in higher education. It analizes the competences developed by Argentinian and UK-based students as they used Skype to design a leaflet that addressed a real world issue: the Argentinian military dictatorship and its manipulation of the 1978 Football World Cup. The data consists of students’ discussions of this highly disturbing human rights issue. A first level of analysis focused on identifying evidence of competences using the Council of Europe’s conceptual model of ‘competences for democratic culture’ (2016). In a second level of analysis, the data was categorized within the framework of Article 2.2 of the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training (2011). This research study provides an empirical test of these two frameworks in the field of language education, an aspect that has not been investigated before. It also contributes to our understanding of the potential of intercultural citizenship projects in achieving the goals of human rights education in foreign language teaching. Results indicate the development of substantial competences for democratic culture defined in the Council of Europe’s model

    The Serendipitous XMM-Newton Cluster Athens Survey (SEXCLAS): Sample selection and the cluster log N - log S

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    In this paper we serendipitously identify X-ray cluster candidates using XMM-Newton archival observations complemented by 5-band optical photometric follow-up observations (r~23 mag) as part of the X-ray Identification (XID) programme. Our sample covers an area of ~2.1 sq. deg (15 XMM-Newton fields) and comprises a total of 21 (19 serendipitous + 2 target) extended X-ray sources to the limit f(0.5-2keV) ~ 6x10^{-15} cgs with a high probability (> 99.9%) of being extended on the XMM-Newton images. Of the 21 cluster candidates 7 are spectroscopically confirmed in the literature. Exploiting the optical data available for these fields we discover that 68% of the X-ray cluster candidates are associated with optical galaxy overdensities. We also attempt to constrain the redshifts of our cluster candidates using photometric methods. We thus construct the photometric redshift distribution of galaxies in the vicinity of each X-ray selected cluster candidate and search for statistically significant redshift peaks against that of the background distribution of field galaxies. Comparison of the photometric with spectroscopic redshift estimates for the confirmed clusters suggest that our simple method is robust out to z~0.5. For clusters at higher z, deeper optical data are required to estimate reliable photometric redshifts. Finally, using the sample of the 19 serendipitous X-ray selected cluster candidates we estimate their surface density down to f(0.5-2keV) ~ 6x10^{-15} cgs and find it to be in fair agreement with previous and recent studies.Comment: Submitted to the MNRAS, 8 page

    'Why Should I Study English If I'm Never Going To Leave This Town?' Developing Alternative Orientations To Culture in the EFL Classroom Through CAR

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    This article describes the progress and findings of a collaborative action research project on the cultural dimension in primary levels of EFL education in Valencia (Spain). Its aim was to explore whether the EFL subject tended to ignore the students¿ native cultural background, and if so, whether this omission brought negative pedagogical consequences. It involved ten student-teachers who were carrying out their practicum placements at schools in the region, ten EFL school teachers, and a university researcher. Collective meetings were held to critically analyze the school experiences, and design experimental interventions to give a different orientation to culture in the EFL class. By the end of the CAR, the STs had become better teachers and researchers: they were more aware of the need for the learners¿ cultural background to become integrated into the communicative aims of the EFL subject, and more prepared to improve their theoretical and practical understanding of this dimension through research on their own teaching

    Changes in the long term intensity variations in Cyg X-2 and LMC X-3

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    We report the detection of changes in the long-term intensity variations in two X-ray binaries, Cyg X-2 and LMC X-3. In this work, we have used the long-term light curves obtained with the All-Sky Monitors (ASMs) of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), Ginga, Ariel 5, and Vela 5B and the scanning modulation collimator of HEAO 1. It is found that in the light curves of both the sources, obtained with these instruments at various times over the last 30 years, more than one periodic or quasi-periodic component is always present. The multiple prominent peaks in the periodograms have frequencies unrelated to each other. In Cyg X-2, RXTE-ASM data show strong peaks at 40.4 and 68.8 days, and Ginga-ASM data show strong peaks at 53.7 and 61.3 days. Multiple peaks are also observed in LMC X-3. The various strong peaks in the periodograms of LMC X-3 appear at 104, 169, and 216 days (observed with RXTE-ASM) and 105, 214, and 328 days (observed with Ginga-ASM). The present results, when compared with the earlier observations of periodicities in these two systems, demonstrate the absence of any stable long period. The 78 day periodicity detected earlier in Cyg X-2 was probably due to the short time base in the RXTE data that were used, and the periodicity of 198 days in LMC X-3 was due to a relatively short duration of observation with HEAO 1.Comment: 11 pages, 7 postscript figures include

    Cone and Seed Insect Pest Research: The Role of the Southwide Studies

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    A reliable supply of genetically improved pine seed is critical to the success of production forestry. The most significant environmental threat to the ability to meet this demand (over 100,000 pounds per year) is insect predation. Cone and seed insect pests can easily destroy half the potential orchard crop, and there have been instances in which 90% of the harvest was lost. Effective insect control is dependent on continued availability of pesticides, both because the economic loss threshold is low, and because alternative control methods have not been successful. Because seed orchards are a minor use, there is limited support from pesticide manufacturers for either efficacy testing or continued product registration. The tree improvement community has responded to this challenge by developing a collaborative working arrangement between entomologists and seed orchard managers that has resulted in a series of southwide efficacy studies. These studies, which have now included evaluations of Guthion�, Asana�, Capture�, and Imidan�, were coordinated through the Seed Orchard Pest Management Subcommittee, a working group of the Southern Forest Tree Improvement Committee. Southwide studies are the culmination of a multi-step process in which promising pesticide formulations and rates are first identified by USDA Forest Service entomologists through small-scale testing, typically with hydraulic spray applications to single trees. This method of application, while allowing for accurate treatment evaluations, does not reflect operational conditions. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the most promising treatments under operational conditions with aerial applications on large treatment blocks. Results from both published and unpublished studies have underscored the strengths and weaknesses of these large-scale tests. Efficacy studies are difficult to implement and have substantial direct and indirect costs to the participants. Seedbug control is easy to achieve. Coneworm control, however, is much more difficult both to achieve and to accurately document. Interpretation of composite traits such as the number of good seed produced per initial flower can lead to erroneous conclusions when efficacy is primarily due to seedbug control. Despite these deficiencies, southwide studies will continue to be needed to validate cone and seed insect control under operational conditions. Studies that will be needed in the future are discussed.Papers and abstracts from the 27th Southern Forest Tree Improvement Conference held at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, Oklahoma on June 24-27, 2003
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