148,586 research outputs found

    Phonemic Segmentation and Labelling using the MAUS Technique

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    We describe the pronunciation model of the automatic segmentation technique MAUS based on a data-driven Markov process and a new evaluation measure for phonemic transcripts relative symmetric accuracy; results are given for the MAUS segmentation and labelling on German dialog speech. MAUS is currently distributed as a freeware package by the Bavarian Archive for Speech Signals and will also be implemented as a web-service in the near future

    MAUS Goes Iterative

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    In this paper we describe further developments of the MAUS system and announce a free-ware software package that may be downloaded from the ’Bavarian Archive for Speech Signals’ (BAS) web site. The quality of the MAUS output can be considerably improved by using an iterative technique. In this mode MAUS will calculated a first pass through all the target speech material using the standard speaker-independent acoustical models of the target language. Then the segmented and labelled speech data are used to re-estimated the acoustical models and the MAUS procedure is applied again to the speech data using these speaker-dependent models. The last two steps are repeated iteratively until the segmentation converges. The paper describes the general algorithm, the German benchmark for evaluating the method as well as some experiments on German target speakers

    Future MAUS payload and the TWIN-MAUS configuration

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    The German MAUS project (materials science autonomous experiments in weightlessness) was initiated in 1979 for optimum utilization of NASA's Get Away Special (GAS) program. The standard MAUS system was developed to meet GAS requirements and can accommodate a wide variety of GAS-type experiments. The system offers a range of services to experimenters within the framework of standardized interfaces. Four MAUS payloads being prepared for future space shuttle flight opportunities are described. The experiments include critical Marangoni convection, oscillatory Marangoni convection, pool boiling, and gas bubbles in glass melts. Scientific objectives as well as equipment hardware are presented together with recent improvements to the MAUS standard system, e.g., a new experiment control and data management unit and a semiconductor memory. A promising means of increasing resources in the field of GAS experiments is the interconnection of GAS containers. This important feature has been studied to meet the challenge of future advanced payloads. In the TWIN-MAUS configuration, electrical power and data will be transferred between two containers mounted adjacent to each other

    Low Gravity Flight Complement Data

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    The structural and mechanical design and performance requirements for a space transportation system carrier which will accommodate essentially self-supporting low-g MEA and MAUS facilities are described. Also included are the mission requirements for the materials processing facility and MEA/MAUS experiment flight implementation reguirements

    Motion extrapolation into the blind spot: Research report

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    The flash-lag effect, in which a moving object is perceived ahead of a colocalized flash, has led to keen empirical and theoretical debates. To test the proposal that a predictive mechanism overcomes neural delays in vision by shifting objects spatially, we asked observers to judge the final position of a bar moving into the retinal blind spot. The bar was perceived to disappear in positions well inside the unstimulated area. Given that photoreceptors are absent in the blind spot, the perceived shift must be based on the history of the moving object. Such predictive overshoots are suppressed when a moving object disappears abruptly from the retina, triggering retinal transient signals. No such transient-driven suppression occurs when the object disappears by virtue of moving into the blind spot. The extrapolated position of the moving bar revealed in this manner provides converging support for visual prediction. © Copyright © 2008 Association for Psychological Science

    Four new species of the genus Aleochara Gravenhorst, 1802, subgenus Coprochara Mulsant & Rey, 1874 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

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    Aleochara (Coprochara) klimaszewskii sp. n. aus dem Jemen, A. (C.) fuldneriana sp. n. aus Tadjikistan, A. (C.) eicasta sp. n. aus dem Kaukasus und A. (C.) peschkeana sp. n. aus Kolumbien werden beschrieben. Differentialdiagnostische Merkmale zur Unterscheidung dieser Arten von anderen in diesen Gebieten vorkommenden Coprochara-Arten werden angegeben.StichwörterColeoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae, Aleochara, Coprochara, new species, taxonomy.Nomenklatorische Handlungeneicasta Maus, 1999 (Aleochara (Coprochara)), spec. n.fuldneriana Maus, 1999 (Aleochara (Coprochara)), spec. n.klimaszewskii Maus, 1999 (Aleochara (Coprochara)), spec. n.peschkeana Maus, 1999 (Aleochara (Coprochara)), spec. n.Aleochara (Coprochara) klimaszewskii sp. n. from Yemen, A. (C.) fuldneriana sp. n. from Tadjikistan, A. (C.) eicasta sp. n. from the Caucasus, and A. (C.) peschkeana sp. n. from Colombia are described. Diagnoses are given to distinguish these specimens from other Coprochara species occurring in the respective regions.KeywordsColeoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae, Aleochara, Coprochara, new species, taxonomy.Nomenclatural Actseicasta Maus, 1999 (Aleochara (Coprochara)), spec. n.fuldneriana Maus, 1999 (Aleochara (Coprochara)), spec. n.klimaszewskii Maus, 1999 (Aleochara (Coprochara)), spec. n.peschkeana Maus, 1999 (Aleochara (Coprochara)), spec. n

    Recent results from MAUS payloads

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    Project MAUS is a part of the German material sciences program and provides autonomous payloads for the Space Shuttle. These payloads are housed in canisters which are identical with those of NASA's Get-Away-Special program. The main components of the hardware are: a standard system consisting of power supply, experiment control, data acquisition and the experiment modules containing experiment specific hardware. Up to now, three MAUS modules with experiments from the area of material sciences have been flown as GAS payloads. Results will be reported from GAS Payload Number G-27 and G-28 flown aboard STS-51G

    Schrittmacherkanäle im olfaktorischen Epithel der Maus

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    HCN channels hyperpolarization-activated and c‾\underline{c}yclic n‾\underline{n}ucleotide-gated channels) are membrane proteins participating in the generation of spontaneous rhythmic electrical activity in cellular networks. Therefore these channels are called pacemaker channels. This thesis describes for the first time, the expression pattern of four different HCN channel isoforms (HCN1 - HCN4) in the olfactory epithelium of the mouse on a subcellular level. The isoforms HCN1 and HCN2 are expressed in olfactory receptor neurons (ORN), more specifically in the dendrites and axons of the ORN. Strong labeling was particularly seen in the axon bundles. The HCN4 isoform was found almost exclusively in the axons of the ORN. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical stainings allowed to distinguish between two morphologically different axon bundles: small, tightly-packed axon bundles which express HCN 1, 2 and 4 to similar degrees, and large axon bundles in which predominantly HCN4 is expressed. Notably, HCN3 seems not to be expressed in the olfactory epithelium of the mouse. Specific shRNA molecules can be utilized to achieve a post-transcriptional downregulation of genes. To this end, r‾\underline{r}ecombinant a‾deno−\underline{a}deno-\underline{a}ssociatedssociated \underline{v}$iruses (rAAV) were constructed allowing the gene transfer of shRNA-coding sequences. In transgenic cell lines which constitutively expressed specific HCN isoforms, a significant downregulation of HCN1 and HCN2 gene expression was achieved after infections with rAAV_shRNA constructs. Especially for HCN2, de novo protein biosynthesis was impaired almost completely. In a series of experiments, the transduction capability of rAAV for ORN was examined in vivo by virus-mediated eGFP expression. Both, ORN and supporting cells were successfully transduced by rAAV of serotype 2 and 5. In transduced cells, eGFP expression was very high and allowed to unequivocally identify the different cell types by their morphology. In summary, this thesis demonstrates that rAAV-mediated gene transfer is a versatile method that can be used both, to introduce genes into living organisms as well as to specifically knock down gene expression by rAAV_shRNA thereby supporting the ultimate goal to study a proteins’ function in vivo. As likely candidates, individual HCN isoforms might now be targeted as their subcellular expression pattern has been unraveled in the olfactory epithelium of the mouse

    Resettable binary latch mechanism for use with paraffin linear motors

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    A new resettable Binary Latch Mechanism was developed utilizing a paraffin actuator as the motor. This linear actuator alternately latches between extended and retracted positions, maintaining either position with zero power consumption. The design evolution and kinematics of the latch mechanism are presented, as well as the development problems and lessons that were learned
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