17,862 research outputs found

    Aproveitamento industrial do caju.

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    Componentes do caju e seus produtos; beneficiamento da castanha de caju; processamento do pedunculo do caju; suco integral de caju; nectar de caju; cajuina; teste de dosagem da solucao de gelatina; vinho de caju; doce de caju em calda; compota de caju; doce de caju massa; geleia de caju; doce de caju cristalizado; caju ameixa; caju cristalizado; mel clarificado de caju; paradurra de caju; referencias;.bitstream/CNPAT-2010/4835/1/Dc-038.pd

    The labour market and fiscal impact of labour reductions: The case of reduction of employers' social security contributions under a wage norm regime with automatic price indexing of wages. NBB Working Paper Nr. 36

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    This paper investigates the possible labour market and fiscal impacts of labour tax reductions in a typically Belgian setting, i.e. a wage norm regime with automatic price indexing of wages. We consider reductions in employers' social security contributions and fiscal compensation through value added or production taxes. Reductions in employers' social security contributions can only have significant employment effects if they effectively reduce labour costs. These reductions are only partly self-financing, and the cost per job created is high. The remaining negative impact on the government budget should be compensated through an alternative means of financing this expenditure, since not–compensating for the budgetary loss is not a realistic option in the long run. For this purpose, various financing schemes can be envisaged, but an increase in value added tax and the introduction of a tax on production (mimicking environmental taxes affecting firms' production costs) are the two possibilities considered in this paper. The alternative financing mechanisms destroy some of the positive employment effects of the initial reductions. However, on balance the combined measures can create some employment without worsening the government budget balance. The reaction of wages to the reduction in employers' social security contributions and to the fiscal compensation measures proves crucial. The more the initial reductions in employers' contributions are used to finance higher gross wages, and the more the inflationary effects of fiscal compensation measures are passed on in wages, the less positive the impact on employment will be. This means that little job creation is to be expected without a special co-ordination effort between all labour market players. Labour tax reductions are by no means a substitute for other labour market reforms

    Barriers to Youth Connections to Work: The Case of Young People in the Low-Income Neighborhood of Caju in Rio de Janeiro

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    This paper takes advantage of an unusually detailed family and youth survey conducted by the Institute for the Study of Work and Society (IETS) in Rio de Janeiro in the low-income community of Caju close to downtown Rio. It describes the weak educational background of Caju youth and some of the reasons for that weakness. The results emphasize the precarious nature of low-income youth's educational achievements and their attachment to the job market. They also demonstrate the wide variance in youth characteristics even in a single low-income neighborhood

    The labour market and fiscal impact of labour reductions: the case of reduction of employers' social security contributions under a wage norm regime with automatic price indexing of wages.

    Get PDF
    This paper investigates the possible labour market and fiscal impacts of labour tax reductions in a typically Belgian setting, i.e. a wage norm regime with automatic price indexing of wages. We consider reductions in employers' social security contributions and fiscal compensation through value added or production taxes. Reductions in employers' social security contributions can only have significant employment effects if they effectively reduce labour costs. These reductions are only partly self-financing, and the cost per job created is high. The remaining negative impact on the government budget should be compensated through an alternative means of financing this expenditure, since not\u2013compensating for the budgetary loss is not a realistic option in the long run. For this purpose, various financing schemes can be envisaged, but an increase in value added tax and the introduction of a tax on production (mimicking environmental taxes affecting firms' production costs) are the two possibilities considered in this paper. The alternative financing mechanisms destroy some of the positive employment effects of the initial reductions. However, on balance the combined measures can create some employment without worsening the government budget balance. The reaction of wages to the reduction in employers' social security contributions and to the fiscal compensation measures proves crucial. The more the initial reductions in employers' contributions are used to finance higher gross wages, and the more the inflationary effects of fiscal compensation measures are passed on in wages, the less positive the impact on employment will be. This means that little job creation is to be expected without a special co-ordination effort between all labour market players. Labour tax reductions are by no means a substitute for other labour market reforms.

    Wage structure effects of international trade: evidence from a small open economy

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    In the last decades, international trade has increased between industrialised countries and between high- and low-wage countries. This important change has raised questions on how international trade affects the labour market. In this spirit, this paper aims to investigate the impact of international trade on wage dispersion in a small open economy. It is one of the few to: i) use detailed matched employer-employee data to compute industry wage premia and disaggregated industry level panel data to examine the impact of changes in exports and imports on changes in wage differentials, ii) examine the impact of imports according to the country of origin. Looking at the export side, we find a positive effect of exports on the industry wage premium. The results also show that import penetration from low–income countries has a significant and negative impact on the inter-industry wage differentials, while imports from high-income countries seem to have a more ambiguous impact on the wage structure. The results suggest that trade with low-income and high-income countries has different effects on the inter-industry wage differentials. JEL Classification: F16, J31inter-industry wage differentials, international trade, matched employer-employee data, Wage Structure

    Downward wage rigidity for different workers and firms: an evaluation for Belgium using the IWFP procedure

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    This paper evaluates the extent of downward nominal and real wage rigidity for different categories of workers and firms using the methodology recently developed by the International Wage Flexibility Project (Dickens and Goette, 2006). The analysis is based on an administrative data set on individual earnings, covering one-third of employees of the private sector in Belgium over the period 1990-2002. Our results show that Belgium is characterised by strong real wage rigidity and very low nominal wage rigidity, consistent with the Belgian wage formation system of full indexation. Real rigidity is stronger for white-collar workers than for blue-collar workers. Real rigidity decreases with age and wage level. Wage rigidity appears to be lower in firms experiencing downturns. Finally, smaller firms and firms with lower job quit rates appear to have more rigid wages. Our results are robust to alternative measures of rigidity. JEL Classification: J31matched employer-employee data, wage rigidity

    Evaluation of Waterhyacinth and Paddy Straw Waste for Culture of Oyster Mushrooms

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    Waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) was evaluated at ratios of 25, 50 and 75% with paddy straw ( Oryza sativa L.) for oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus sajor-caju) cultivation. There was an increase in yield with decreasing ratio waterhyacinth

    Inter-industry wage differentials : How much does rent sharing matter ?

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    This paper investigates inter-industry wage differentials in Belgium, taking advantage of access to a unique matched employer-employee data set covering all the years from 1999 to 2005. Findings show the existence of large wage differentials among workers with the same observed characteristics and working conditions, employed in different sectors. These differentials are persistent and no particular downward or upward trend is observed. Further results indicate that ceteris paribus, workers earn significantly higher wages when employed in more profitable firms. The time dimension of our matched employer-employee data allows us to instrument firms' profitability by its lagged value. The instrumented elasticity between wages and profits is found to be quite stable over time and varies between 0.034 and 0.043. It follows that Lester’s range of pay due to rent sharing fluctuates between about 24 and 37 percent of the mean wage. This rentsharing phenomenon accounts for a large fraction of the industry wage differentials. We find indeed that the magnitude, dispersion and significance of industry wage differentials decreases sharply when controlling for profitsIndustry wage differentials, Rent-sharing, Matched employer-employee data

    Rent-Sharing and the Cyclicality of Wage Differentials

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    This paper investigates inter-industry wage differentials in Belgium, taking advantage of access to a unique matched employer-employee data set covering all the years from 1999 to 2005. Findings show the existence of large wage differentials among workers with the same observed characteristics and working conditions, employed in different sectors. These differentials are persistent and no particular downward or upward trend is observed. However, the dispersion of inter-industry wage differentials appears to show a cyclical pattern over time. Further results indicate that ceteris paribus, workers earn significantly higher wages when employed in more profitable firms. The time dimension of our matched employer-employee data allows us to instrument firms' profitability by its lagged value. The instrumented elasticity between wages and profits is found to be quite stable over time and varies between 0.034 and 0.043. It follows that Lester's range of pay due to rent sharing fluctuates between about 24 and 37 percent of the mean wage. This rent-sharing phenomenon accounts for a large fraction of the industry wage differentials. We find indeed that the magnitude, dispersion and significance of industry wage differentials decreases sharply when controlling for profits.industry wage differentials, rent-sharing, matched employer-employee data

    Molecular and Antibacterial Profile of Edible Oyster Mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju

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    Pleurotus varieties cultivated in Mauritius include 3 strains: Pleurotus sajor-caju strain CC114, Pleurotus sajor-caju strain CC200 and Pleurotus sajor-caju strain CC201. In this study the chemical composition, antimicrobial properties and genetic variation of the three Pleurotus strains were explored. Chemical screening of crude extracts of the Pleurotus strains revealed the presence of terpenes, phenols, alkaloids, saponins and hydrolysable tannins. Flavonols were however identified only in Pleurotus strain CC200 extracts and leucoanthocyanins were detected only in the extracts of Pleurotus CC114 strain. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Pleurotus sajor-caju strain CC200 had more significant antimicrobial effect than Pleurotus sajor-caju strain CC114 and Pleurotus sajorcaju strain CC201 which both demonstrated nearly similar antimicrobial activity. Genomic DNA extraction was successfully carried out using the Phenol/Chloroform DNA extraction protocol and the DNA was purified using an RNAse treatment. Genetic relatedness among the three strains of Pleurotus sajorcaju was assessed using the RAPD technique. Out of the 50 primers used, maximum polymorphism was observed using 8 Operon primers. Out of the 73 amplification products obtained with all three Pleurotus species, there was 28.8 % polymorphism which was observed. Maximum polymorphism was obtained following amplification using OPL 05. The fact that Pleurotus sajor-caju strain CC200 was least related to Pleurotus sajor-caju strain CC114 and Pleurotus sajor-caju strain CC201 could possibly explain the differences in the bioactivity of these mushrooms.Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Flavonoids, Pleurotus, Genetic diversit
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