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    Evaluation of the Impacts of Taurine on Oxidative Stress Indices in Sera and Brain of Rats Exposed to Cypermethrin

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    Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide applied for pest control on animals and the environment. Taurine is a putative antioxidant and bioprotective amino acid. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the impacts of taurine on oxidative stress indices in the sera and brains of rats exposed to cypermethrin. Forty rats were assigned to five groups of eight rats each. Distilled water was given to the first group, while the second group received soya oil (2 ml/kg). Cypermethrin (20 mg/kg) was administered to the third group. The Taurine50+Cypermethrin group received taurine (50 mg/kg) and cypermethrin, while the Taurine100+Cypermethrin group was administered with taurine (100 mg/kg) and Cypermethrin. The treatments were given once daily by oral gavage for 35 days. Sera were obtained from the blood samples of the rats after the completion of the study for the determination of the oxidative stress indices (malondialdehyde concentration and the activities of antioxidant enzymes). Oxidative stress indices were analysed in the brains. Taurine significantly (P< 0.05) augmented the superoxide dismutase activity in the sera. However, other oxidative stress indices were not ameliorated by taurine in the sera and the brains. Cypermethrin (20 mg/kg) did not overtly evoke oxidative stress in the sera and the brains of the rats in this study, probably because it is a moderately toxic insecticide. This is the first study that has investigated the effects of taurine on cypermethrin toxicity. Further research is warranted to expound the mechanisms of action of taurine and cypermethrin in biological systems

    Proximate and Elemental Analysis of African Star Apple ( Chrysophyllum albidum )

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    The proximate and elemental analysis of African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) using standard analytical techniques was investigated. The proximate composition of the plant showed the values of 54.57 % for carbohydrate, 13.25 % of fat, and 3.85 % of crude protein. The crude fiber and ash content indicates the values of 6.60 % and 4.70 % respectively. The moisture content present (17.03 %) reveals the possibility of having low antimicrobial activities of the plant. The mineral elements present in different concentrations are Ca (706.850 mg/kg), Mg (325.500 mg/kg), Fe (40.875 mg/kg), Cu (3.275 mg/kg), and Zn (4.625 mg/kg). The result shows that the fruit have essential minerals required by human for normal life activities

    Market Opportunities and Profitability of Tree Crop Planting in Nigeria

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    Investing in trees offer financial and social returns for years to come and it is a lucrative long-term investment in Nigeria. Despite the substantial gain on investment in tree planting, only few people are still involved in the business. This paper analyzed the profitability of investment in tree crop planting for income generation. Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) and Net Present Value (NPV) were calculated to determine the financial viability of tree crop planting. The study showed that tree crop planting is a profitable business as shown by positive NPV of \u20a62,187,822.0 and \u20a62,782,214.97 for Tectonia grandis and Moringa oleifera plantations respectively, after 10-years of maturation and harvesting at 14 % discount rate with a B/C Ratio of 1.97 and 1.6 respectively. Also, NPV of \u20a61, 575,487.10 for a 5-year small scale private nursery establishment with a B/C Ratio of 2.79 at a 14% discount rate also confirm that the investment on nursery establishment is highly profitable. It is recommended that with adequate support and incentives, farmers can take advantage of these opportunities and invest in nursery enterprise and tree crop sub-sector of the economy

    Residential Indoor Radon Assessment in the Vicinity of some Dumpsites in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Dumpsites in Nigeria are generally open and significantly elevate the pollution and contamination level of the total environment. Indoor radon was measured with CR-39 detectors in some buildings in the vicinity of dumpsites in Lagos, Nigeria. Eight (8) dumpsites (4 dormant and 4 active dumpsites) were chosen for this study. Detectors were exposed in 50 houses randomly selected within 0 and 100m away from the dumpsites. The detectors were exposed for 3 months. They were then retrieved and etched in a 6M NaOH solution in a water-bath at a temperature of 90oC for 3 hours. Tracks were counted using a semi-automatic system with a DCE camera mounted on a microscope and connected to a PC. Radon concentration ranged from 24.00\ub14.86 to 656.00\ub1131.20 Bqm-3 in the active dumpsites. Mean concentrations were 120.3\ub124.0, 257\ub151.4, 179.8\ub133.6, and 131.5\ub119.4, respectively in Oke-Odo, MRF, Olusosun, and Solus-3. In the dormant sites, concentration ranged from 16\ub13.2 to 931\ub1186.3 Bqm-3 having means of 194.17\ub138.80, 206.75\ub141.33, 223.25\ub144.69, and 334\ub166.85Bqm-3, respectively in Oke-Afa, Solus-1, Solus-2, and Solus-4. The annual effective dose and cancer risk in the active and dormant dumpsites were (3.60 mSv, 8.97 per million person-yearly) and (4.53 mSv, 12.47 per million person-yearly), respectively. This study revealed some high value of radon concentrations in some houses close to the dormant dumpsites than in the active dumpsites. This is unsafe and can cause severe health issues in the long term

    Performance Evaluation of Outpatient Department Waiting Line System in a City Hospital in Nigeria

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    In this paper, performance evaluation of outpatient department waiting line system in a city hospital in Nigeria has been studied using a multiple server queuing model. The relevant data used in the research were collected for a period of four weeks through direct observations and interviews. The results of the research showed that with Two Doctors for the morning session patients spent an average of 1.0233hours in the system, out of which 0.932hours are spent on the queue with 95.45% Doctor Utilization. When the numbers of the Doctors were increased to 3, 4 and 5, it was found that a patient will spend an average of 0.125hours, 0.0975hours and 0.0924hours in the system respectively. In each of the 3, 4 and 5 Doctors increased, the system will have 63.64%, 47.73% and 38.18% Doctors utilization respectively. With one Doctor for the evening session, the system has 54.55% Doctor Utilization and patient spent 0.2hours in the system. The overall results showed that there is need to increase the number of Doctors to 3 or 4 for the morning session to achieved optimal service delivery while one Doctor in the evening session should be maintained. The results from the research could serves as important information to the management of the hospital for better services delivery

    Effect of Light Intensities on Growth Performance of Tetrapleura tetraptera Seedlings Schum. (Thonn.)

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    The study assessed the effect of varying light intensities and optimum percentage of sunlight favourable for raising Tetrapleura tetraptera seedlings. The light intensity was measured through photometer. The experiment was subjected to a control without wire mesh(T1) and three other treatments (T2, T3 and T4) covered with different layers of black wire mesh with 99.5%, 75%, 49.8% and 25% light intensities respectively. Each of the treatments was replicated six times in a completely randomized design. The plant height, leaf production and stem diameter were all monitored for 12 weeks. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed and the means separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD). The results showed that the significance effect (P = \u3b10.05) was only observed in the seedlings height of Tetrapleuratetrapteraseedlings. However, the mean values obtained for all the parameters considered revealed the treatment 1(i.e. 99.8% wire mesh) was observed to be the best performing treatment. For the plant height, mean value ranged between 13.09 cm and 16.8 cm, a range from 0.22cm to 0.28mm was recorded for stem girth while the mean values between 22 and 27 were obtained for number of leaves among the treatments. It may be concluded from the study, that light intensity of 100% i.e without interference should be used for the growth and development as well as production of Tetrapleura tetraptera seedlings in the nursery

    Factors Influencing Soil Erosion Management Practices in Ejersa Lafo District, West Showa Zone, Oromia, Regional State, Ethiopia

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    Soil erosion by water is the major Agricultural problem, which results in reduction of agricultural productivity. This study focused on farmer perception of soil erosion and factors influence soil erosion management practices. A cross sectional data was used to assess information about soil erosion perception and factors influence soil erosion management practices. The Ejersa Lafo district was purposively selected from the districts of West Shoa Zones. A total of 142 sample respondents were randomly selected. Interview questionnaire, focus group discussion and survey of field observation were used as data collection tools. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and econometric model. Result from descriptive statistics show that majority of the respondents perceived soil erosion problem and its consequence on farmland. Both biological and physical soil erosion management practices in the area. Binary logit model estimation result shows that education level, landholding size, slopes of the land and land ownership type were most significant to soil erosion management practices in the area. Therefore, taking these factors into account in setting appropriate soil erosion management measures may help policy makers and farmers to couple with erosion problem. The study recommended a need for the government to enforce effective policies to control and prevent soil erosion problem

    Impacts Assessment of Coastal Activities on Water Quality of Upper Segment of Qua Iboe River, Akwa Ibom State, South-South, Nigeria

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    A study was carried out at the supper segment of Qua Iboe River from November, 2018 to August, 2019 in four sampling stations to assess the impacts of coastal activities on water quality. Water samples were collected monthly and analyzed using standard procedures of Associations of Official Analytical Chemist and American Public Health Association. The stations comparisons and location of significant differences were carried out using ANOVA and Least Significant Difference (LSD) test, while paired sample t-test were employed to compare the seasonal difference. The mean ranged values of water temperature were (25.03 \u2013 25.330C), pH (5.8 \u2013 6.6 mg/l), DO(3.11 - 5.45 mg/l), TDS (18.63 \u2013 32.53mg/l), EC (8.33-13.16\u3bcs/cm), Turbidity (7.61 \u2013 18.32 NTU), TSS (90.80 - 165.63 mg/L), NO3-1 (33.02 \u2013 78.33mg/l), P043-(4.44 \u2013 7.39mg/l), Cl-(43.60 \u2013 63.21mg/l), COD(35.96 \u2013 113.05mg/l), NH3(0.33 \u2013 0.62 mg/l). Mean values of TSS, EC, TSS, NO3, PO43-, NH3 and turbidity were higher in wet season, while water temperature, pH, DO, Cl- and COD values obtained were higher in dry season. Spatial variations in parameters were ascribed to levels of anthropogenic activities and wastes discharged within the stations; the seasonal variations were emanated from influx of wastes, and dilution as result of surface run-offs during wet season. Based on the findings, the WQI values were poor for human consumption; especially from station 2 to 4.These calls for urgent attention by Federal / State Ministry Health and Environment regards to its effects on human health and consistent water quality monitoring should be put into consideration

    Assessment of Antimicrobial Effect of Alcohol and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola on Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia

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    As a result of the development of resistance of microorganisms to older antimicrobial agents there is need for a search for new agents, which are effective for the treatment of infections. The crude aqueous and alcoholic extr acts of Garcinia kola fruits were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results revealed that the plant extracts possess inhibitory effect against the microorganisms tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the plant extracts ranged between 20mg/ml and 45mg/ml. There was a change in the antibacterial activity of the test extracts on variation of temperature. The results obtained may suggest that the plant extract is thermal stable and could serve as a source of industrial drugs useful in chemotherapy of some microbial infections

    Systematic Review on Adverse Effect of Pesticide on Top Ten Importers of African Countries

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    As agricultural production in African countries intensifies; pesticide utilization becomes more widespread and the users are extremely exposed to these pesticides due to lack of pesticide registration scheme; importing highly toxic pesticides; no national plan for pesticide residue; involvement of children and women. The purpose of this systematic review was to review adverse effect of pesticide among top ten imported African countries. In this review, top ten importers African countries were selected based of imported amount for ten years were considered from imported period of 2002 to 2017. The articles were searched from PUBMED, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, and MEDLINE and EMBASE engines. The first leading three continents for pesticides exported were European (48.2%), Asian (33.7%) and North America (12.7%), while the countries were China (14.3%), Germany (11.8%) and United States (11.5%) at the end of 2017. The first three leading importer of African countries were South Africa shared (25.7%), Nigeria (15.8%) and Ghana (14.5%). The three major imported pesticides were Fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. In this review, Ethiopia (827), Kenya (801), and Morocco (542) are the main importers of pesticides until end of 2017. The review also found that farmers were faced with endocrine disruption, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, cardiovascular, dermatitis and birth defects. The main associated factor for these problems were low awareness, improper handling of pesticide, and lack of training, and careless disposal of empty pesticides containers. The study concluded that more than one billion US$ of pesticides sales was carried out into ten African countries. The farmers within these country were faced different health problems due to different determinant factors. Proper training and education should be advised for farmer


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