25,858 research outputs found

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

    Get PDF
    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    The value of local food partnerships: Covid and beyond

    Get PDF
    The Covid-19 pandemic, and – more recently – soaring food prices have focused attention on how local areas meet the challenges of a fractured food system. This report examines the impacts andachievements of Local Food Partnerships (LFPs) and how LFPs embed and amplify their work to deliver both local and national food priorities. LFPs have been uniquely placed to provide systems leadership and practical solutions through the strategic direction and support of the UK-wide Sustainable Food Places (SFP) programme, established a decade prior to the pandemic. LFPs have been able to pivot to respond with agility to an extended period of national crisis and have moved forward to offer a coherent framework for the transition of local food system. The four dimensions of ‘effectiveness’,‘efficiency’, ‘engagement’, and ‘equity’ highlight the value of LFPs to fill the leadership gap on local food issues

    Mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in Casuarina: a review of recent research

    Get PDF
    ReviewSalinization is a global concern whose extent is predicted to progressively increase over this century. In this context, biosaline agriculture has been included in the set of climate-smart solutions to support sustainable and resilient ecosystems. The Casuarinaceae family is widely known for its intrinsic ability to thrive under saline environments. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying salt-tolerance in this family is of utmost importance for landscape integration and soil rehabilitation. In this mini-review, we present the state of the art of Casuarina research – from gene to ecosystem – in response to salinity, towards green growth and sustainable development. Based on literature retrieval from 2000 to 2021, a general overview of salt-stress tolerance in the Casuarinaceae is presented, and the extent of the contribution of root-nodule and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses, as well as the related eco-physiological and molecular changes are discussedinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

    Get PDF
    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis

    Supernatural crossing in Republican Chinese fiction, 1920s–1940s

    Get PDF
    This dissertation studies supernatural narratives in Chinese fiction from the mid-1920s to the 1940s. The literary works present phenomena or elements that are or appear to be supernatural, many of which remain marginal or overlooked in Sinophone and Anglophone academia. These sources are situated in the May Fourth/New Culture ideological context, where supernatural narratives had to make way for the progressive intellectuals’ literary realism and their allegorical application of supernatural motifs. In the face of realism, supernatural narratives paled, dismissed as impractical fantasies that distract one from facing and tackling real life. Nevertheless, I argue that the supernatural narratives do not probe into another mystical dimension that might co-exist alongside the empirical world. Rather, they imagine various cases of the characters’ crossing to voice their discontent with contemporary society or to reflect on the notion of reality. “Crossing” relates to characters’ acts or processes of trespassing the boundary that separates the supernatural from the conventional natural world, thus entailing encounters and interaction between the natural and the supernatural. The dissertation examines how crossing, as a narrative device, disturbs accustomed and mundane situations, releases hidden tensions, and discloses repressed truths in Republican fiction. There are five types of crossing in the supernatural narratives. Type 1 is the crossing into “haunted” houses. This includes (intangible) human agency crossing into domestic spaces and revealing secrets and truths concealed by the scary, feigned ‘haunting’, thus exposing the hidden evil and the other house occupiers’ silenced, suffocated state. Type 2 is men crossing into female ghosts’ apparitional residences. The female ghosts allude to heart-breaking, traumatic experiences in socio-historical reality, evoking sympathetic concern for suffering individuals who are caught in social upheavals. Type 3 is the crossing from reality into the characters’ delusional/hallucinatory realities. While they physically remain in the empirical world, the characters’ abnormal perceptions lead them to exclusive, delirious, and quasi-supernatural experiences of reality. Their crossings blur the concrete boundaries between the real and the unreal on the mental level: their abnormal perceptions construct a significant, meaningful reality for them, which may be as real as the commonly regarded objective reality. Type 4 is the crossing into the netherworld modelled on the real world in the authors’ observation and bears a spectrum of satirised objects of the Republican society. The last type is immortal visitors crossing into the human world. This type satirises humanity’s vices and destructive potential. The primary sources demonstrate their writers’ witty passion to play with super--natural notions and imagery (such as ghosts, demons, and immortals) and stitch them into vivid, engaging scenes using techniques such as the gothic, the grotesque, and the satirical, in order to evoke sentiments such as terror, horror, disgust, dis--orientation, or awe, all in service of their insights into realist issues. The works also creatively tailor traditional Chinese modes and motifs, which exemplifies the revival of Republican interest in traditional cultural heritage. The supernatural narratives may amaze or disturb the reader at first, but what is more shocking, unpleasantly nudging, or thought-provoking is the problematic society and people’s lives that the supernatural (misunderstandings) eventually reveals. They present a more compre--hensive treatment of reality than Republican literature with its revolutionary consciousness surrounding class struggle. The critical perspectives of the supernatural narratives include domestic space, unacknowledged history and marginal individuals, abnormal mentality, and pervasive weaknesses in humanity. The crossing and supernatural narratives function as a means of better understanding the lived reality. This study gathers diverse primary sources written by Republican writers from various educational and political backgrounds and interprets them from a rare perspective, thus filling a research gap. It promotes a fuller view of supernatural narratives in twentieth-century Chinese literature. In terms of reflecting the social and personal reality of the Republican era, the supernatural narratives supplement the realist fiction of the time

    Filling in the Gap: A quantitative analysis of dental restoration types among body donors of Asian descent at the Mann-Labrash Osteological Collection

    Get PDF
    The Mann-Labrash Osteological Collection at the University of Hawai’i John A. Burns School of Medicine houses over 230 skeletal remains amassed through the Willed Body Program. Of these donors, seventy-eight were of East and Southeast Asian American and Pacific Islander descent. This unique collection offers an exciting opportunity for skeletal analyses of these populations left understudied in the body of anthropological scientific literature. This thesis explores the dietary causes of dental disease and dental restorations from the past to the present. Additionally, macroscopic analyses and Chi-square statistical tests determined which sex cohorts utilized dental restorative prostheses in life. Also addressed are the socioeconomic determinants of dental care access among these underrepresented groups. Lastly, because of the marginal availability of East and Southeast Asian American and Pacific Islander skeletal remains in US reference collections, an examination of death ideologies and organ donor hesitancies held by these communities are reviewed

    Mechanical pruning and soil organic amending in two terroirs. Effects on wine chemical composition and sensory profile

    Get PDF
    The knowledge about the interaction between mechanical pruning and soil organic amending is still scarce. This study aimed to examine the effects of the interaction between these two practices on wine quality. Syrah grapes from two trial fields in Portugal subjected to two different pruning systems (mechanical pruning; hand spur pruning) and five different organic amendment treatments (control, biochar, municipal solid waste compost, cattle manure, and sewage sludge) were harvested and vinified for four years. Mechanical pruning significantly reduced wine alcoholic strength, pH, and total anthocyanins. Mechanical pruning and organic amendments, tendentially reduced wine total phenols and tannin power, known as an “estimation of the astringency potential of the wines”. Tasters found low but significant differences in global appreciation with the pruning system. Sludge tended to reduce wine global appreciation more than municipal solid waste compost and cattle manure, while biochar had no effect on tasters’ preference when compared to the control. There was strong relation between yield and tasters’ preference only above 6 kg/vine and 8 kg/vine depending on the terroir. Mechanical pruning tendentially has significant effects on wine quality when yield raises above a certain level. Thus, with this pruning system, the choice of the organic amendment and its amount must be done considering the destiny of the produced grapes. To the best of our knowledge, effects of the interaction of mechanical pruning with soil organic amending on wine quality are a noveltyinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Effect of salinity stress on antioxidant activity and grain yield of different wheat genotypes

    Get PDF
    In order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of wheat in salinity stress conditions, an experiment with 27 wheat genotypes grown on two types of soil was conducted: solonetz (increased salinity) and chernozem (control), during two vegetation seasons (2015/2016 and 2016/2017). Analysis of DPPH radical scavenging activity and phenolic content (PC) were performed in different phenophases of wheat (tillering, stem elongation and heading). Genotypes showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (9.82 mg trolox equivalents (TE) per mg of dry matter (d.m.)) and PC (8.15 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per mg d.m.) under salinity stress conditions compared to values obtained on control (8.52 mg TE mg-1 d.m. and 7.13 mg GAE mg-1 d.m., respectively). All analyzed factors (genotype, soil type and year) had the highly significant influence on phenotypic variation of grain yield. Salinity stress reduced grain yield by 30%, whereas drought stress in 2016/2017 vegetation season reduced grain yield by 20%. Highly significant and positive correlations are present between grain yield and parameters of antioxidant activity in all growth stages of wheat and both soil conditions. Therefore, it could be possible to select salinity tolerant genotypes in early growth stages. DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content are in highly significant and positive correlation in all growth stages, which indicates that antioxidant activity is highly derived by phenolics

    Diversity, Importance and Decline of Pollinating Insects in Present Era

    Get PDF
    Pollination is a multi-million-year-old co-evolutionary process involving flowering plants and pollinators. It is one of the most important mechanisms in preservation and promotion of biodiversity as well as life on Earth. Pollinator diversity is essential for maintaining overall biological diversity in many habitats including agro-ecosystems. Pollinators are responsible for assisting reproduction in over 80% of the world’s flowering plants. In their absence, humans and wildlife would go hungry. Insects are the most efficient pollinators as they play a crucial part in pollination ecology. Pollinators and their habitats have ecological, economic, cultural and social benefits. Pollination efficiency is highly dependent on certain attributes and characteristics of pollinators such as vision, anatomy, food preferences, olfaction, behaviour and learning ability. With the rapid growth of human population, our demand for food has also risen. Our agricultural systems will need to produce more food in a sustainable manner in the future to cope with this. Pollinators play an important role in these ecosystems and will continue to do so in the future. Because pollinators are so important to agriculture, we need to learn more about which crops require specific pollinators and how to best maintain and promote both wild and controlled species. Their diversity needs protection because there are specific relationships between certain crops and pollinators. Pollinator communities are suffering as a result of man-made habitat disruptions, including severe biodiversity loss. This diversity must be protected by combining conservation measures with sustainable farming practices which could increase crop yields while protecting insect pollinator species
    corecore