13,753 research outputs found

    Exposed Life Runs Free: Gender, Labor, and Speculation in TEPCO’s Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

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    This dissertation examines how logics of financial securitization and heteropatriarchy have shaped the production of surplus populations in reconstruction policies from the TEPCO Fukushima nuclear disaster in post-2011 Japan. Through multi-sited fieldwork with nuclear subcontractors, labor organizers, anti-irradiation mothers, and state-recognized nuclear evacuees, it elucidates nuclear reconstruction and remediation efforts more broadly as projects that resecure financial and affective investments in nuclear imperialism and colonialism through the disciplining of communities exposed to radioactive fallout. Each chapter examines nuclear reconstruction through the partial construction of archetypes of positions within the geography of nuclear reconstruction. Through this method, an analysis emerges of how reconstruction policies and their justification through risk communication discourses of “harmful rumor” reproduce the conditions of the nuclear industry in Japan, disciplining the irradiated through a racialized domesticity imposed by American imperialism, the reproduction of an eco-eugenic heteropatriarchal organization of value, and through systems of labor brokerage inherited from Japanese colonial production. The form of the dissertation and its inclusion of autoethnographic reflections argues for a feminist transgender mode of anthropology that centers the fragmentation of anthropology, the ethnographer’s body, and classical constructions of “the field.” Through the use of poetry, translation, archives from workplace struggle, work from local historians and economists, American Studies, Anthropology, and Japanese Studies, it aims to normalize a way of doing anthropology that is characterized by the splitting of the voice, disruption, and ethnographic refusal

    From Toxic Industries to Green Extractivism: Rural Environmental Struggles, Multinational Corporations and Ireland’s Postcolonial Ecological Regime

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    In this article, we analyse the political ecology of Ireland’s industrial landscape in the current era of digital capitalism, which has been posited as the primary engine of an oncoming “green” eco-modernisation via smart technologies. As our research has found over the past several years (see Bresnihan and Brodie 2021a, 2021b, 2023), far from representing benevolent contributors to the planetary transition away from fossil fuels, digital corporations are poised to become primary beneficiaries by funnelling accumulation through green transition strategies into and through their proprietary infrastructures. In what follows, we unravel the ways in which this does not represent a necessarily new development in Ireland, but rather a historical and continuous transition within Irish environmental governance that facilitates the accumulation strategies of multinational companies via a model of foreign direct investment (FDI)-led state development. In so doing, the Irish state not only participates in these activities as they implicate Irish territory within these global extractive regimes, it also enrols Irish land, labour and infrastructure into them in geographically uneven ways. But, at the same time, there have been a multitude of historical and contemporary examples of civil society objection and outright popular resistance to this development model, representing points of friction at which environmental contradictions are negotiated and contested across local communities and the state in often ambivalent way

    Contribution of radioactive particles to the post-explosion exposure of atomic bomb survivors implied from their stable chromosome aberration rates

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    Even today when nearly 80 years have passed after the atomic bomb (A-bomb) was dropped, there are still debates about the exact doses received by the A-bomb survivors. While initial airborne kerma radiation (or energy spectrum of emitted radiation) can be measured with sufficient accuracy to assess the radiation dose to A-bomb survivors, it is not easy to accurately assess the neutron dose including appropriate weighting of neutron absorbed dose. Particularly, possible post-explosion exposure due to the radioactive particles generated through neutron activation have been almost neglected so far, mainly because of a large uncertainty associated to the behavior of those particles. However, it has been supposed that contribution of such non-initial radiation exposure from the neutron-induced radioactive particles could be significant, according to the findings that the stable chromosomal aberration rates which indicate average whole-body radiation doses were found to be more than 30% higher for those exposed indoors than for those outdoors even at the same initial dose estimated for the Life Span Study. In this Mini Review article, the authors explain that such apparently controversial observations can be reasonably explained by assuming a higher production rate of neutron-induced radioactive particles in the indoor environment near the hypocenter

    Study on the actual particle size, activity concentration, and migration process adsorption behavior of radioactive substances in liquid effluents from nuclear power plants

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    Radionuclides emitted by nuclear power plants may have effects on the environment and public health. At present, research on radioactive material effluent in the industry mainly focuses on the treatment of radioactive effluent and the particle size distribution of the primary circuit. There is little research on the particle size of radioactive material during the migration process outside the primary circuit system, as well as the flocculation precipitation and other enrichment phenomena during the collection process of effluent. Therefore, this study relies on the sampling of effluent from an in-service nuclear power plant to measure its radioactivity level by particle size range. At the same time, the mixing process of effluent is simulated in the laboratory to simulate the adsorption behavior of effluent during the migration process. It was found that in the activity concentration of detectable radioactive nuclides in the effluent samples, more than 95% of radioactive nuclides exist in the liquid with particle sizes less than 0.1μm, while particle sizes greater than 0.45 μm account for less than 5%. After the sample was filtered by the demineralizer, the radioactive activity decreased. The flocculation precipitation in the waste liquid of the waste water recovery system has a certain contribution to the enrichment of nuclides. With the extension of time, the enrichment of transition elements such as cobalt and manganese is particularly obvious, so that it is distributed in the liquid again with a large particle size. In addition, large particle size substances such as colloids in seawater have a certain adsorption effect on radionuclides, which will lead to its aggregation effect again

    How the Physical, Social, and Psychological Environment Impacts Border Security

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    Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is a theory of crime control that posits that crime can be mitigated by shaping the physical, psychological, and social environment to prevent the meeting of perpetrators and victims. Over several decades, the United States applied the principles of CPTED to the United States-Mexico border in San Diego to secure the international border. Despite the sovereign right to secure the international border, border security became a divisive and emotionally charged topic in the United States. Studies on the effectiveness of border security were qualitative and humanitarian, describing how border security negatively impacted certain groups and was not beneficial to safety. This observational, non-experimental, quantitative study looked at the correlation between the efforts of the United States to secure the border in San Diego and the violent and property crime rates in San Diego between 1996 and 2020, as the principles of CPTED were applied. The violent and property crime rates in San Diego fell significantly between 1996 and 2020, with the property crime rate declining the most. The study found a statistically significant, strong negative correlation between applying CPTED principles on the border and the violent and property crime rates in San Diego between 1996 and 2020

    Industrial supply of trace elements during the “Anthropocene”: a record in estuarine sediments from the Ria of Ferrol (NW Iberian Peninsula)

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    This work addresses the study of a sediment core retrieved in the estuary of the Grande-de-Xubia River (Ria of Ferrol), which is among the first industrialized areas in the Iberian Peninsula and has links to the shipbuilding industry since 1750. The chemical analysis of trace elements (i.e. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) was coupled with 210Pb dating. The results span a period of about 130 years and cover the whole of the 20th century. Trace element anthropogenic fluxes accumulating in the sediments were calculated and show that human inputs are the most important sources for Cu, Cd, Hg and Zn, being, on average, well over the natural loads. The temporal variation in the anthropogenic contaminants allows the identification of four main phases describing the human-natural input interactions, which in chronological order, are: (i) early industrialization, (ii) industrial acceleration or first industrial transition, (iii) industrial collapse, and (iv) an industrial maturity or a second industrial transition.Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación | Ref. CTM 2011-28792-C02-02Xunta de Galicia | Ref. ED481B-2019-06

    Small States in World Politics: Norwegian Interests and Foreign Policy Challenges in the Arctic

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    Small states are perceived to be subject to the will of great powers in the international system. Yet, small states – such as Norway – also have interests they pursue through various means. This article features an inventory of the Norwegian government’s main foreign policy and Arctic policy interests, and examines the rationale behind these interests from a domestic and an international perspective. The article highlights Norway’s challenges in the Arctic, including balancing between Russia and NATO, Norway’s bilateral relationship with the United States, dealing with China as an emerging Arctic stakeholder, and Norway’s ambivalent relationship with the European Union concerning the Arctic. The analysis draws on theorizing about small states in world politics and Putnam’s two-level game. The latter facilitates the examination of how the Norwegian government must reconcile domestic and international priorities simultaneously, and how the negotiation of foreign policy is conducted as a balancing act in national and international arenas

    Albanian castles in defence of Balkan public health

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    Последствия преконцептивного облучения родителей: эндокринно-обменная патология у потомков

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    Epidemiological studies of late effects of preconceptional (prior to conception) radiation exposure are necessary in order to understand the risks of tumor and non-tumor pathology in next generations. Research of possible relation between parental preconceptional exposure and development of endocrine and metabolic disorders in the offspring is one of the topical issues of radiation hygiene. The objective of the study: comparative analysis of endocrine and metabolic pathology in children of the individuals exposed to long term preconceptional external gamma-radiation at the Mayak Production Association – at the first atomic industry facility on Russia. Materials and methods: A retrospective research was performed based on the Ozyorsk Children’s Health Registry. Ozyorsk – the city where Mayak Production Association is the enterprise forming the city. Analysis of endocrine and metabolic disorders was performed for 13880 children of 1949-1973 years of birth who were born and resided in Ozyorsk; parents of 9321 children of this number had accumulated doses of prolonged external gamma-radiation exposure at the production facility prior to conception. A comparative analysis of the structure and incidence of “Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases” and nosological forms of this class of pathology was performed. Characteristic features of parental preconceptional exposure were analyzed in relation to thyroid pathology in children. Relative risk of endocrine and metabolic disorders among the children of exposed and unexposed parents was calculated for the whole disease class and for certain nosologies. Results: A significant predominance of thyroid diseases, particularly, iodine deficiencies, was detected at an earlier age among the offspring of Mayak Production Association workers compared to the control group; these cases were mostly related to low dose parental preconceptional exposure. Thyroid cancer was further detected in 0.16% (15/9321) of the studied cohort of the offspring of exposed parents with average manifestation age of 42.6. Relative risk of thyroid diseases was significantly higher among the exposed parents’ offspring compared to the controls: 2.0 among boys (95% confidence interval 1.38-2.9), 1.59 among girls (1.25-2.02) and in the group as a whole – 1.64 (1.34- 2.01). Relative risk of thyroid diseases related to iodine deficiency among the offspring of Mayak Production Association personnel was almost twice higher than the in the control group: 1.92 (1.3-2.84) among boys, 1.68 (1.29-2.2) among girls, 1.7 (1.36-2.12) in the whole group. Discussion and conclusion: A statistically significant overweight of non-tumor thyroid pathology in the offspring of Mayak Production Association personnel cannot be explained through external reasons taking into account similar climate and geographic conditions, possible technogenic exposure and the same unified medical survey of the followed children. We cannot exclude increased sensibility if thyroid tissue to iodine deficiency and its predisposition to hypertrophy and hyperplasia among the offspring of individuals exposed to long term occupational contact with ionizing radiation sources; that should be taken into account in the course of medical monitoring of these patients. Further research of transgenerational effects in the offspring of personnel of radiation hazardous production facilities are needed for complete understanding of the role of parental occupational exposure in health risks for further generations.Эпидемиологические исследования отдаленных эффектов преконцептивного (до зачатия) радиационного воздействия необходимы для понимания рисков опухолевой и неопухолевой патологии у последующих поколений. Изучение возможной связи преконцептивного облучения родителей с формированием эндокринно-обменных нарушений у потомков является одним из актуальных аспектов радиационной гигиены. Цель работы: сравнительный анализ эндокринно-обменной патологии среди детей, чьи родители подверглись пролонгированному преконцептивному внешнему гамма-облучению на производственном объединении «Маяк» – первом в стране предприятии атомной отрасли. Материалы и методы: ретроспективное исследование выполнено на основе Регистра здоровья детского населения г. Озерска, градообразующим предприятием которого является производственное объединение «Маяк». Анализ эндокринно-обменных расстройств проведен среди 13 880 детей 1949–1973 гг.р., родившихся и проживавших в г. Озерск, из которых у 9321 ребенка родители до зачатия подверглись пролонгированному внешнему гамма-облучению на производстве. Проведен сравнительный анализ структуры и частоты класса «Болезни эндокринной системы, расстройства питания и нарушения обмена веществ» и его нозологических форм. Проанализированы особенности преконцептивного облучения родителей при детской тиреоидной патологии. Рассчитан относительный риск эндокринно-обменных нарушений среди детей экспонированных и неэкспонированных родителей в целом по классу и по нозологиям. Результаты исследования: среди потомков работников производственного объединения «Маяк» отмечено значимое преобладание болезней щитовидной железы и, в частности, йододефицитных состояний, которые диагностировались в более раннем возрасте, чем в контроле, и в большинстве случаев относились к преконцептивному облучению родителей в области малых доз. Рак щитовидной железы зарегистрирован в последующем у 0,16% (15/9321) исследуемой когорты потомков облученных родителей со средним возрастом манифестации 42,6 года. Относительный риск болезней щитовидной железы был значимо выше среди потомков экспонированных родителей по сравнению с контролем: среди мальчиков – 2,0 (95% доверительный интервал 1,38–2,9), среди девочек – 1,59 (1,25–2,02), в целом по группе – 1,64 (1,34–2,01). Относительный риск болезней щитовидной железы, связанных с йодной недостаточностью, среди потомков персонала производственного объединения «Маяк» почти вдвое превышал показатели в контроле: ОР 1,92 (ДИ 1,3–2,84) среди мальчиков, 1,68 (1,29–2,2) среди девочек, 1,7 (1,36–2,12) в целом по группе. Обсуждение и заключение: статистически значимое преобладание неопухолевой патологии щитовидной железы у потомков персонала производственного объединения «Маяк» нельзя объяснить внешними причинами, учитывая одинаковые климато-географические условия, возможное техногенное радиационное воздействие и единое медицинское обеспечение наблюдаемых детей. Повышенная восприимчивость тиреоидной ткани к дефициту йода и её предрасположенность к гипертрофии и гиперплазии среди потомков, чьи родители подверглись длительному профессиональному контакту с источниками ионизирующих излучений, не исключается, что важно учитывать при проведении медицинского мониторинга этих лиц. Дальнейшие исследования трансгенерационных эффектов у потомков персонала радиационно-опасных производств необходимы для полного понимания роли производственного облучения в риске для здоровья последующих поколений

    Radioactive, Internal Colonialism: The Uranium Industry’s Historic and Current Impact on the Navajo Nation

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    The United States withheld information pertaining to the health problems associated with nuclear power, allowing uranium to be extracted, processed, and stored in the Southwest of the United States and more specifically the Navajo Nation. With this, many Diné people who had previously worked in the mines or lived within close vicinity to facilities developed various types of illnesses. This thesis argues that the development of nuclear energy in the United States is a form of radioactive, internal colonialism and that the current waste facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico is furthering this history into the present day. This thesis examines the stages of uranium mining production, the United States\u27 incentives for uranium extraction, the associated health risks, and significant nuclear spill events in order to present a holistic history of nuclear energy. The research includes a historical overview of how the United States government neglected to provide the proper information about the harms associated with nuclear power as a tool to perpetuate environmental racism as well as radioactive, internal colonialism. With this, the paper analyzes the role Indigenous-founded activist groups played in combating these injustices. The investigation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, which is the only official national geologic respiratory waste facility in the United States, inspects the current prevailing dangers of nuclear energy. With this, the thesis concludes that nuclear energy as an alternative energy source to shift away from oil and gas will continue to commit acts of violence against Indigenous populations