587 research outputs found

    RefugeesÔÇÖ Refrains in the Poetry by Nelly Sachs

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    W artykule badam, jaki zesp├│┼é przes┼éanek konstytuuje si─Ö w tw├│rczo┼Ťci niemieckoj─Özycznej noblistki oraz w jaki spos├│b autorka sprowadza do wiersza zraniony ┼Ťwiat. Interpretuj─Ö jej utwory zwi─ůzane z w─ůtkiem uchod┼║czym. Czytam jej neurotyczn─ů poezj─Ö tak┼╝e w obr─Öbie wsp├│┼éczesnego dyskursu nomadologicznego i postrzegam jako drogowskaz ku j─Özykowi solidarno┼Ťci. W tw├│rczo┼Ťci noblistki z 1966 roku mo┼╝na dostrzec zapowied┼║ stylistyki wsp├│┼éczesnych wierszy uchod┼║c├│w (m.in. Breyten Breytenbach czy Ashur Etwebi), buduje si─Ö wsp├│lnota artystyczna os├│b pozbawionych domu. Artyku┼é zamykam konkluzj─ů zwi─ůzan─ů z wykorzystaniem poezji w edukacji na rzecz pokoju.In the article I have been studying what premises constitute in the work of this German-speaking Nobel Prize winner and how the author brings the wounded world to the poem. I am aiming at interpreting her works in the relation to the refugees theme. I read her neurotic poetry also in the context of the contemporary nomadological discourse and I perceive it as a signpost to the language of solidarity. In the works of the Nobel Prize winner from 1966 one can see a preview of the style of the poems written by contemporary refuges (Breyten Breytenbach or Ashur Etwebi), and the artistic community of people deprived of their homes. I close the article with the conclusion related to the use of poetry in education for peace

    Aspekty metafizyczne w poezji Rose Ausl├Ąnder

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    This article analyzes six poems by Rose Ausl├Ąnder, a poet of Jewish origin, who lived in the years 1901ÔÇô1988. She was born at Chernivtsi (then in the Austro-Hungarian Empire), and died in D├╝sseldorf (Germany). Ausl├Ąnder wrote in German and in English. The aim of this paper is to discuss the metaphysical aspects of Ausl├ĄnderÔÇÖs poems and to demonstrate that these aspects are manifested on the semantic, lexical and axiological levels. My interest is in the spiritual experience evoked by her poetry, resulting from a transcendence-and Absolute-oriented existence, experienced in terms of mystery. Another objective is to determine whether the said metaphysical experience receives religious specification. The ergocentric method, as proposed by Zofia Zar─Öbianka in her research into the sacred in literature, is based on the assumption that this phenomenon is inherent in the text itself and can thus be investigated without referring to external circumstances or searching therein for itsorigins. This allows for a greater concentration onthe very phenomenon of the sacred as present ina literary text.The analysis of the poems shows that references to God the Creator tend to be frequent, and that human participation in the act of creation is repeatedly stressed. The speaker assumes a posture of dependence on, respect for and admiration of the Absolute. Significant to the spiritual dimension of this poetry is seeing material reality and the affairs ÔÇťof this worldÔÇŁ in eschatological terms. Ausl├ĄnderÔÇÖs poetry reveals a system of Bible-based beliefs, such as those concerning the love for oneÔÇÖs neighbour. An adequate reading of the meanings evoked in Ausl├ĄnderÔÇÖs lyrical texts becomes possible when the Bible is seen as the prototype of the lyrical situations presented in her poems. The primacy of spiritual meanings, as well as the search for identity, eternity, fullness and the creative powers of God, become clear indeed. The religious vocabulary of the poems under discussion is rather poor. Instead, it is axiological references and allusions to Biblical fragments, such as psalm verses, that construct the poemsÔÇÖ metaphysical aspects. These are then made more specific with the use of notions typical of the Judeo-Christian tradition.Przedmiotem analizy jest sze┼Ť─ç wierszy Rose Ausl├Ąnder, poetki ┼╝ydowskiego pochodzenia, ┼╝yj─ůcej w latach 1901ÔÇô1988, urodzonej w Czerniowcach, na terenie ├│wczesnych Austro-W─Ögier, a zmar┼éej w D├╝sseldorfie (Niemcy). Ausl├Ąnder tworzy┼éa w j─Özyku niemieckim i angielskim. Celem niniejszego szkicu jest prze┼Ťledzenie aspekt├│w metafizycznych zawartych w wierszach Rose Ausl├Ąnder i udowodnienie tezy, i┼╝ przejawiaj─ů si─Ö one na p┼éaszczy┼║nie semantycznej, leksykalnej oraz aksjologicznej.Interesuje mnie ewokowane przez wiersze do┼Ťwiadczenie duchowe, wyros┼ée na gruncie egzystencji skierowanej ku transcendencji, ku Absolutowi i prze┼╝ywanej jako tajemnica. Celem jest r├│wnie┼╝ ustalenie, czy owe do┼Ťwiadczenia metafizyczne uzyskuj─ů specyfikacj─Ö religijn─ů. Metoda ergocentryczna zaproponowana przez Z. Zar─Öbiank─Ö w badaniach sakralno┼Ťci literatury zak┼éada, ┼╝e ├│w fenomen jest obecny w samym tek┼Ťcie i mo┼╝e by─ç badany bez odniesie┼ä do okoliczno┼Ťci zewn─Ötrznych i szukania w nich uzasadnienia dla jego genezy. Pozwala to na lepsze skoncentrowanie si─Ö na samym fenomenie sacrum obecnym w tek┼Ťcie literackim.Analiza wierszy pozwala stwierdzi─ç, ┼╝e cz─Öste s─ů w nich odniesienia do Boga-Stw├│rcy oraz podkre┼Ťlany jest wsp├│┼éudzia┼é cz┼éowieka w dziele stworzenia. ÔÇ×JaÔÇŁ m├│wi─ůce tekstu poetyckiego przyjmuje wobec Absolutu postaw─Ö zale┼╝no┼Ťci, respektu i podziwu. Istotnym dla wymiaru duchowego tej poezji jest widzenie rzeczy materialnych i spraw tego ┼Ťwiata w kontek┼Ťcie eschatologicznym. W poezji ujawnia si─Ö system przekona┼ä budowanych na Biblii, np. gdy jest mowa o mi┼éo┼Ťci bli┼║niego. Odczytanie w┼éa┼Ťciwych znacze┼ä ewokowanych przez teksty liryczne jest mo┼╝liwe poprzez uwzgl─Ödnienie Biblii jako pierwowzoru dla sytuacji lirycznych przedstawionych w wierszach. Wyra┼║nie zaznaczony jest w nich prymat sens├│w duchowych, poszukiwanie to┼╝samo┼Ťci, wieczno┼Ťci, pe┼éni, stw├│rczej mocy Boga. S┼éownictwo religijne analizowanych liryk├│w jest do┼Ť─ç ubogie. To raczej nawi─ůzania w sferze aksjologii i poprzez aluzj─Ö do fragment├│w biblijnych, np. wers├│w psalmu, buduj─ů ich aspekt metafizyczny, kt├│ry znajduje konkretyzacj─Ö w prze┼Ťwiadczeniach w┼éa┼Ťciwych dla tradycji judeochrze┼Ťcija┼äskiej. Metafiziniai RoseÔÇÖos Ausl├Ąnder poezijos aspektaiAnaliz─Śs objektas ÔÇô ┼íe┼íi RoseÔÇÖos Ausl├Ąnder eil─Śra┼í─Źiai. Tai ┼żyd┼│ kilm─Śs poet─Ś, gyvenusi 1901ÔÇô 1988 metais, gimusi Chernivtsi (dar AustrijosÔÇôVengrijos imperijoje), mirusi Diuseldorfe (Vokietija). Ausl├Ąnder ra┼í─Ś vokie─Źi┼│ ir angl┼│ kalbomis. ┼áio darbo tikslas yra aptarti metafizinius RoseÔÇÖos Ausl├Ąnder eil─Śra┼í─Źi┼│ aspektus ir ─»rodyti, kad jie i┼íreik┼íti semanti┼íkai, leksi┼íkai ir aksiologi┼íkai. Tyr─Śjai r┼źpi dvasin─Ś patirtis, kuri─ů sukelia poet─Śs tekstai, gimstantys i┼í transcendentin─Śs egzistencijos, nukreiptos ─» am┼żin─ů egzistavim─ů. Kitas tyrimo tikslas yra nustatyti, ar metafizin─Ś patirtis gauna religini┼│ bruo┼ż┼│. Zofija Zar─Öbianka ┼íventum─ů literat┼źroje tiria ergocentriniu metodu, grind┼żiamu prielaida, kad ┼íis rei┼íkinys yra labai glaud┼żiai susij─Ös su tekstu, tod─Śl gali b┼źti tiriamas be i┼íorini┼│ aplinkybi┼│ ar kilm─Śs paie┼ík┼│. Tai padeda labiau susikoncentruoti ─» pat─» ┼íventumo rei┼íkin─» literat┼źriniame tekste.Eil─Śra┼í─Źi┼│ analiz─Ś parod─Ś, kad da┼żnos nuorodos ─» Diev─ů k┼źr─Śj─ů, nuolat pabr─Ś┼żiamas ┼żmogaus dalyvavimas k┼źrybos akte. Kalb─Śtojo pozicija demonstruoja pagarb─ů ir susi┼żav─Śjim─ů Absoliutui. Svarbus dvasinis poezijos aspektas tas, kad ─» tikrov─Ö ir ÔÇ×┼íio pasaulioÔÇť reikalus ┼żvelgiama eschatologi┼íkai.Ausl├Ąnder poezija atskleid┼żia Biblija gr─»st┼│ ─»sitikinim┼│ sistem─ů, pavyzd┼żiui, apie meil─Ö artimui. ─«manomas adekvatus Ausl├Ąnder lyrini┼│ tekst┼│ reik┼ími┼│ skaitymas, kai Biblija laikoma lyrini┼│ situacij┼│, pateikt┼│ eil─Śra┼í─Źiuose, prototipu. Ai┼íkiai i┼írei┼íkiamas dvasini┼│ prasmi┼│ pirmumas, am┼żinyb─Śs, pilnatv─Śs ir Dievo k┼źrybini┼│ gali┼│ ie┼íkojimas.Religinis eil─Śra┼í─Źi┼│ ┼żodynas gana skurdus. Tai aksiologin─Śs nuorodos ir aliuzijos ─» Biblijos fragmentus, pavyzd┼żiui, psalmes. Tai specifin─Śs aliuzijos, atspindin─Źios tipi┼ík─ů jud─Śj┼│ ir krik┼í─Źioni┼│ tradicij┼│ suvokim─ů. Jomis grind┼żiami metafiziniai eil─Śra┼í─Źi┼│ aspektai.REIK┼áMINIAI ┼ŻOD┼ŻIAI: poezija, metafizika, transcendencija, Rose Ausl├Ąnder

    Prze-pisywanie romantyzmu? O jednej z poetyckich dykcji Aleksandra Wata

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    The article is an attempt to read Wiersze ┼Ťr├│dziemnomorskie (Mediterranean Poems) ÔÇô one of the most prominent texts of the modernist Polish poet Aleksander Wat. The author is interested in the relation of this text with Romanticism, consisting not only in a variety of intertextual and aesthetic references, but, what is most significant, in the realization of a Romantic concept of subjectivity in the way of perceiving and experiencing the world. The author follows the demonstrations of this subjectivity in the consecutive fragments of the Mediterranean poem, indicating multifaceted character of Romantic trappings and dependencies, especially those of epistemological kind. This kind of reading of the Mediterranean poem inclines one to pose a fundamental question: why Wat, in a revisionist fashion, makes use of the Romantic diction in Mediterranean Poems, making of it a kind of a subcode of his own language? It happens so because the difficulties of modernist identity have their source in Romanticism, which, firstly, discovers the world as a domain of conflicting oppositions, secondly, ÔÇô as a meditative consciousness questioning the substantive unity of the subject, thirdly, ÔÇô subjectivity as a task to be realized by various types of articulations and narrations

    Schriftenverzeichnis von Czesław Karolak

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    In the Wake of Jedwabne. The Start of a Popular Guilt Narrative

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    The aim of the sketch Po Jedwabnem. Narodziny popularnej opowie┼Ťci rozliczeniowej (ÔÇťIn the Wake of Jedwabne. The Start of a Popular Guilt NarrativeÔÇŁ) is to discuss some literary phenomenon which was revealed several years after the publication of the book Neighbors (ÔÇťS─ůsiedziÔÇŁ) by Jan Tomasz Gross, and may be treated as a reaction of literature (or more broadly: art) to the debate of historians, politicians, publicists and all other participants of the Polish social discourse, evoked by the mentioned book. The author terms this phenomenon post-Jedwabne narrations, including among them an extensive collection of almost twenty literary, theatrical and film productions, of which the article deals with Nasza klasa (ÔÇťOur ClassÔÇŁ) by Tadeusz S┼éobodzianek, Pingpongista (ÔÇťPing-Pong PlayerÔÇŁ) by J├│zef Hen and ┼ü─ůk─Ö umar┼éych (ÔÇťMeadow of the DeadÔÇŁ) by Marcin Pilis. The social influence of these books and specific poetics based on modification of a narrative pattern adopted from Neigbors, is studied in the context of pop culture (as a discourse which is increasingly present in shaping the representation of the Holocaust), narratology (rhetorical models proposed by Hayden White) and comparative studies, referring it to the achievements of German-language guilt narrations, among others Der Vorleser (ÔÇťThe ReaderÔÇŁ) by Bernhard Schlink and Nahe Jedenew (ÔÇťClose to JedenewÔÇŁ) by Kevin Vennemann. The author in her sketch is in the search for the sources of a new literary phenomenon which would testify to the involvement of art in negotiating the contemporary shape of history and at the same time, she asks to what extent this phenomenon absorbed the popular patterns of discussing history, including the ones which have been created by the West European Holocaust discourse

    Anna Zelenay. Twarz poetki

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    The article presents the life and work of Anna Zelenay, a forgotten poetess from K┼éodzko. The author shows the impact of her disease on awareness and shape of her poems written often in hospitals and sanatoriums. He discusses the critics on her poetry and the poetessÔÇÖs place in her own time and generation. The author indicates that the existence of Zelenay on the literary scene is related to the activities of Literary Club of K┼éodzko, and bigger promotion of her work is caused with her active participation in a very important literary event of the sixties, in Poetic Springs of K┼éodzko.The article presents the life and work of Anna Zelenay, a forgotten poetess from K┼éodzko. The author shows the impact of her disease on awareness and shape of her poems written often in hospitals and sanatoriums. He discusses the critics on her poetry and the poetessÔÇÖs place in her own time and generation. The author indicates that the existence of Zelenay on the literary scene is related to the activities of Literary Club of K┼éodzko, and bigger promotion of her work is caused with her active participation in a very important literary event of the sixties, in Poetic Springs of K┼éodzko

    To Overhear The Secret of The PoetÔÇŽ Aeschylus and Aeschylean Reminiscences in The Works of Jan Kasprowicz

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    Jan Kasprowicz, lived in 1860ÔÇô1926, whose fame and glory is nowadays in the shadow, in┬áhis time was considered one of the greatest and most important Polish poets and authors. He was┬áa diligent translator, who made Polish public accustomed with a great number of pieces of worldwide┬áliterature. He made about eighty translations of different works which is a huge and rare number,┬áespecially when taking into account only one person who was at the same time an author of his┬ágenuine works, an academic scholar and a journalist. He was fascinated and inspired by Aeschylus┬áfrom the time he was a schoolboy. And thus we may find many reminiscences of AeschylusÔÇÖ poetry┬áin his genuine works. His fascination which lasted many years culminated with the translation of┬áAeschylusÔÇÖ tragedies into Polish. As for Kasprowicz Aeschylus was ÔÇśthe king of the tragic playwrights┬áand the most powerful worldwide author of the tragediesÔÇÖ

    Bibliografia przekładów literatury słowackiej w Polsce w 2016 roku

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    Bibliografia przekładów literatury słowackiej w Polsce w 2016 roku

    Zofia Wojnarowska. Poetka dla dzieci ÔÇô poetka mi┼éo┼Ťci ÔÇô poetka rewolucji

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    The article discusses Zofia WojnarowskaÔÇÖs (1881-1967) biography and poetry which were representative of the life path and artistic career of many other active Polish poetesses at the turn of the 19th┬á century. The output of Wojnarowska, who made her debut in the period of Young Poland and reached her artistic maturity in the interwar period, expresses a typical situation of an artistÔÇôepigone whose mediocre talent looks for its own expression and place in the literary Parnassus in the time of, important for the national community, political, economic and cultural changes. Political facts like the countryÔÇÖs occupation, World War I and a difficult process of the restoration of an independent country influenced the judgments of Polish critics who rarely applied esthetic criteria to the evaluation of poetessesÔÇÖ, including WojnarowskaÔÇÖs, output and instead appreciated their subordination to the following functions: didactic (in childrenÔÇÖs poetry), expressive (in love poetry) and ideological (in the poetry of proletarian revolution). The situation in which systemic and individual factors like the emancipation of women, the crystallization of literary professions literary criticsÔÇÖ lenient approach to the artistic output of women and the ease of writing overlapped, the need of success and ideological engagement, on the one hand, made it difficult for women writers to improve their own work, to function in higher mainstream and to play the roles of culture creators and, on the other hand, made it easier for them to function in the popular mainstream and play a role of literary craftsmen.The article discusses Zofia WojnarowskaÔÇÖs (1881-1967) biography and poetry which were representative of the life path and artistic career of many other active Polish poetesses at the turn of the 19th┬á century. The output of Wojnarowska, who made her debut in the period of Young Poland and reached her artistic maturity in the interwar period, expresses a typical situation of an artistÔÇôepigone whose mediocre talent looks for its own expression and place in the literary Parnassus in the time of, important for the national community, political, economic and cultural changes. Political facts like the countryÔÇÖs occupation, World War I and a difficult process of the restoration of an independent country influenced the judgments of Polish critics who rarely applied esthetic criteria to the evaluation of poetessesÔÇÖ, including WojnarowskaÔÇÖs, output and instead appreciated their subordination to the following functions: didactic (in childrenÔÇÖs poetry), expressive (in love poetry) and ideological (in the poetry of proletarian revolution). The situation in which systemic and individual factors like the emancipation of women, the crystallization of literary professions literary criticsÔÇÖ lenient approach to the artistic output of women and the ease of writing overlapped, the need of success and ideological engagement, on the one hand, made it difficult for women writers to improve their own work, to function in higher mainstream and to play the roles of culture creators and, on the other hand, made it easier for them to function in the popular mainstream and play a role of literary craftsmen

    Miejsce pie┼Ťni (piosenki ludowej) w ┼Ťwiadomo┼Ťci i tw├│rczo┼Ťci romantyk├│w (zarys problematyki)

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    The present article attempts to answer the question: what is the place of the folk song in the consciousness and the works of the Romantics? It should first be noted that the author does not claim the right to a full and unambiguous explanation of that issue. The article begins with a discussion of the relationship between music and lyrics in the aesthetics of ancient Greece ÔÇô thereby indicating the source of the Romantic concept of the synthesis of arts. Subsequently, the author focuses on the issue of ÔÇťthe decline of the folk songÔÇŁ expressed in Achim von ArnimÔÇÖs work entitled On Folk Songs. The next part of the article discusses the theory of vocal aesthetics and the idea of the nationality of art formulated by Herder, who was the first to treat folk art equally with high culture and expressed his opinion on the relationship between text and music in songs in a particularly interesting way (Schopenhauer took up a similar notion, which is also emphasized by the author of the article). the article closes with a subsection strictly devoted to the expansion of the folk song. The author draws attention to how important folk art is in the hierarchy of arts and how, once appropriately interpreted, it has become one of the foundations of the Romantic consciousness, not only in terms of literature, but also more broadly in the cultural or even culture-forming sense.Tematem powy┼╝szego artyku┼éu jest pr├│ba odpowiedzi na pytanie: jakie jest miejsce pie┼Ťni ludowej w ┼Ťwiadomo┼Ťci oraz tw├│rczo┼Ťci romantyk├│w? Od razu wypada zaznaczy─ç, ┼╝e autor nie ro┼Ťci sobie prawa do jednoznacznego i pe┼énego wyja┼Ťnienia owej kwestii. Artyku┼é rozpoczyna si─Ö od om├│wienia zwi─ůzku muzyki i liryki w estetyce staro┼╝ytnej Grecji ÔÇô wskazuj─ůc tym samym na ┼║r├│d┼éo romantycznej koncepcji korespondencji sztuk. W dalszej kolejno┼Ťci autor skupia si─Ö na problematyce ÔÇ×upadku pie┼Ťni ludowejÔÇŁ wyra┼╝onej w dziele Achima von Arnim pt. O pie┼Ťniach ludowych. W nast─Öpnej cz─ůstce rozwa┼╝a┼ä om├│wiona zostaje teoria estetyki wokalnej oraz idea narodowo┼Ťci sztuki Herdera, kt├│ry jako pierwszy postawi┼é tw├│rczo┼Ť─ç ludow─ů na r├│wni z kultur─ů wysok─ů oraz w spos├│b niezwykle interesuj─ůcy wypowiedzia┼é si─Ö o relacji tekstu do muzyki w pie┼Ťni. (Podobny w─ůtek podj─ů┼é tak┼╝e Schopenhauer, co r├│wnie┼╝ zostaje przez autora artyku┼éu wyeksponowane.) Artyku┼é zamyka podrozdzia┼é traktuj─ůcy stricte o ekspansji pie┼Ťni ludowej. Autor zwraca w nim uwag─Ö na to, jak wa┼╝ne miejsce w hierarchii sztuk zaj─Ö┼éa tw├│rczo┼Ť─ç ludowa i w jaki spos├│b, odpowiednio zinterpretowana, sta┼éa si─Ö jednym z fundament├│w romantycznej ┼Ťwiadomo┼Ťci nie tylko literackiej, ale szerzej, kulturowej, czy wr─Öcz kulturotw├│rczej
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