56,401 research outputs found

    Protection of pigs against challenge with virulent <i>Streptococcus suis</i> serotype 2 strains by a muramidase-released protein and extracellular factor vaccine

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    The efficacy of a muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) vaccine in preventing infection and disease in pigs challenged either with a homologous or a heterologous Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain (MRP EF ) was compared with the efficacy of a vaccine containing formalin-killed bacterin of S suis serotype 2 (MRP EF ). The enhancement of the immune response by different adjuvants (a water-in-oil emulsion [wo] and an aluminium hydroxide-based adjuvant [AH]) and their side effects were also studied. The MRP and EF were purified by affinity chromatography. Pigs were vaccinated twice at three weeks and six weeks of age and challenged intravenously with virulent S suis serotype 2 strains (MRP EF ) at eight weeks of age. At challenge, the pigs vaccinated with MRP EF/WO had high anti-MRP and anti-EF titres and were protected as effectively as pigs vaccinated with wo-formulated vaccines with bacterin. Eight of the nine pigs survived the challenge and almost no clinical signs of disease were observed. The titres obtained with the MRP EF/AH vaccine were low and only two of the five pigs were protected. Pigs vaccinated with either MRP or EF were less well protected; three of the four pigs died after challenge but the clinical signs of disease were significantly less severe than those observed in the placebo-vaccinated pigs. The protective capacity of the bacterin/AH vaccine was very low, and the mortality among these pigs was as high as in the placebo-vaccinated pigs (80 per cent). Postmortem histological examination revealed meningitis, polyserositis and arthritis in the clinically affected pigs. The results demonstrate that a subunit vaccine containing both MRP and EF, formulated with the wo adjuvant, protected pigs against challenge with virulent S suis type 2 strains

    Market risk premium used in 2008: A survey of more than a 1,000 professors

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    The average Market Risk Premium (MRP) used in 2008 by professors in the United States (6.5%) was higher than the one used by their colleagues in Europe (5.3%), Canada (5.4%), the United Kingdom (5.6%) and Australia (5.9%). The dispersion of the MRP was high. 15% ofthe professors decreased their MRP in 2008 (1.5% on average) and 24% increased it (2% on average). 66% of the professors used a lower MRP in 2007 than in 2000 (22% used a higher one). The average MRP used in 2007 was 1.5% lower than the one used in 2000. Most previous surveys were interested in the Expected MRP, but this survey asks about the Required MRP. The paper also contains the references that professors use to justify their MRP and comments from 180 professors that illustrate the variety of interpretations of what the required MRP is and explain the confusion of students and practitioners about its concept and magnitude.equity premium puzzle; required equity premium; expected equity premium; historical equity premium;

    Measure Recognition Problem

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    This is an article in mathematics, specifically in set theory. On the example of the Measure Recognition Problem (MRP) the article highlights the phenomenon of the utility of a multidisciplinary mathematical approach to a single mathematical problem, in particular the value of a set-theoretic analysis. MRP asks if for a given Boolean algebra \algB and a property Φ\Phi of measures one can recognize by purely combinatorial means if \algB supports a strictly positive measure with property Φ\Phi. The most famous instance of this problem is MRP(countable additivity), and in the first part of the article we survey the known results on this and some other problems. We show how these results naturally lead to asking about two other specific instances of the problem MRP, namely MRP(nonatomic) and MRP(separable). Then we show how our recent work D\v zamonja and Plebanek (2006) gives an easy solution to the former of these problems, and gives some partial information about the latter. The long term goal of this line of research is to obtain a structure theory of Boolean algebras that support a finitely additive strictly positive measure, along the lines of Maharam theorem which gives such a structure theorem for measure algebras

    Use of RNA secondary structure for evolutionary relationships : investigating RNase P and RNase MRP : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Genetics at Massey University, New Zealand

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    Bioinformatics is applied here to examine whether RNA secondary structure data can reflect distant evolutionary relationships. This is important when there is little confidence in sequence data such as when looking at the evolution of RNase MRP (MRP). RNase P (P) and RNase MRP (MRP) are ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) that are involved in RNA processing and due to functional and secondary structure similarities, are thought to be evolutionary related. P activity is found in all cells, and fits the criteria for inclusion in the RNA world (Jeffares et al. 1998). MRP is found only in eukaryotes with essential functions in both the nucleus and mitochondria. The RNA components of P and MRP (pRNA and mrpRNA) cannot be aligned with any certainty, which leads to a lack of confidence in any phylogenetic trees constructed from them. If MRP evolved from P only in eukaryotes then it is an exception to the general process of the transfer of catalytic activity from RNA, to ribonucleoproteins, to proteins (Jeffares et al. 1998). An alternative possibility that MRP evolved with P in the RNA world (and has since been lost from all but the eukaryotes) is raised and examined. Quantitative comparisons of the pRNA and mrpRNA biological secondary structures have found that the third possibility of an organellar origin of MRP is unlikely Results show that biological secondary structure can be used in the evaluation of an evolutionary relatedness between MRP and P and may be extended to other catalytic RNA molecules. Although there are many protein families, this may be the first evidence of the existence of a family of RNA molecules, although it would be a very small family. Secondary structures derived with folding programs from pRNA and mrpRNA sequences are examined for use in the characterisation of catalytic RNA sequences. The high AT content in organellar genomes may hinder the identification of their catalytic RNA sequences. A search strategy is developed here to address this problem and is used to identify putative pRNA sequences in the chloroplast genomes of four green plants. A maize chloroplast pRNA-like sequence is examined in more detail and shows many characteristics seen in known pRNA sequences. Folding programs show some potential for the characterisation of possible catalytic RNA sequences with only a small bias in the results due to sequence length and AT content

    The Jury's Still Out on What Constitutes a Microaggression

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    In "Microaggressions: Strong Claims, Inadequate Evidence," Scott Lillenfeld argues that, despite a decade of scholarship, the Microaggression Research Program (MRP) continues to suffer serious analytic and evidentiary problems. After walking through these shortcomings, he provides 18 suggestions to help improve the reliability and utility of the MRP. In "Microaggressions and 'Evidence': Experimental or Experiential Reality?" Derald Wing Sue responds. This chapter provides background on the origin of the MRP, and referees the dispute between Lillenfeld and Sue about its contemporary status