145,366 research outputs found

### Bayesian Analysis of Nested Logit Model by Markov Chain Monte Carlo

We develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating nested logit models in a Bayesian framework. Appropriate "heating target" and reparameterization techniques are adopted for fast mixing. For illustrative purposes, we have implemented the algorithm on two real-life examples involving 3-level structures. The first example involves Social Security's disability determination process, Lahiri et al. (1995). The second one is taken from Amemiya and Shimono's (1989) model of labor supply behavior of the aged. We applied a combination of various convergence criteria to ensure that the chain has converged to its target distribution.Discrete Choice, Random Utility Maximization, MCMC, Mixing Speed.

### Semi-Parametric Empirical Best Prediction for small area estimation of unemployment indicators

The Italian National Institute for Statistics regularly provides estimates of unemployment indicators using data from the Labor Force Survey. However, direct estimates of unemployment incidence cannot be released for Local Labor Market Areas. These are unplanned domains defined as clusters of municipalities; many are out-of-sample areas and the majority is characterized by a small sample size, which render direct estimates inadequate. The Empirical Best Predictor represents an appropriate, model-based, alternative. However, for non-Gaussian responses, its computation and the computation of the analytic approximation to its Mean Squared Error require the solution of (possibly) multiple integrals that, generally, have not a closed form. To solve the issue, Monte Carlo methods and parametric bootstrap are common choices, even though the computational burden is a non trivial task. In this paper, we propose a Semi-Parametric Empirical Best Predictor for a (possibly) non-linear mixed effect model by leaving the distribution of the area-specific random effects unspecified and estimating it from the observed data. This approach is known to lead to a discrete mixing distribution which helps avoid unverifiable parametric assumptions and heavy integral approximations. We also derive a second-order, bias-corrected, analytic approximation to the corresponding Mean Squared Error. Finite sample properties of the proposed approach are tested via a large scale simulation study. Furthermore, the proposal is applied to unit-level data from the 2012 Italian Labor Force Survey to estimate unemployment incidence for 611 Local Labor Market Areas using auxiliary information from administrative registers and the 2011 Census

### Mixing Welfare and Work: Evidence from the PSID, 1980-87

Evidence from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics (PSID) suggests that those with a history of mixing welfare and work are more likely to continue mixing rather than be in another welfare or labor market state. This finding supports the view that, without a welfare subsidy, jobs held by working welfare recipients will not provide for self sufficiency. We find no evidence supporting the notion that time spent mixing welfare and work alters individuals' tastes in favor of receiving AFDC (only) relative to working (only). Finally, as conventional theory suggests, the tax changes introduced by OBRA in 1981 discouraged the mixing of welfare and work.Welfare

### A Supplementary State Civil Rights Act

Under the following statute, civil rights groups, with the approval of the state civil rights commission, may enter into agreements with employers, labor organizations, school authorities, or other public or private agencies, for a direct attack on de facto segregation through a deliberate mixing of races in a desired proportion. Professor Rodes characterizes his draft as a suggestion for controlled concessions to the principle of direct mixing of the races in such a manner as to be philosophically consistent with an ultimate commitment to a society in which racial considerations play no part

### A Supplementary State Civil Rights Act

Under the following statute, civil rights groups, with the approval of the state civil rights commission, may enter into agreements with employers, labor organizations, school authorities, or other public or private agencies, for a direct attack on de facto segregation through a deliberate mixing of races in a desired proportion. Professor Rodes characterizes his draft as a suggestion for controlled concessions to the principle of direct mixing of the races in such a manner as to be philosophically consistent with an ultimate commitment to a society in which racial considerations play no part

### Worker Rights Consortium Assessment re Darong Printing and Embroidery (Cambodia): Findings, Recommendations, and Status Report

WRC report on assessment of health and safety hazards at the Darong Printing and Embroidery factory in Cambodia. Also describes remedial actions taken by the company following the WRC report

### Investment in Schooling and the Marriage Market

We produce a model with pre-marital schooling investment, endogenuos marital matching and spousal specialization in homework and market production Pre-marital investments generate two kinds of returns: a labor-market return due to the education premium and a marriage-market return because education can improve the intra-marital share of the surplus one can extract from marriage. When the returns to education are gender neutral, men and women educate in equal proportions and there is pure positive assortative matching in the marriage markets. But if the returns are not gender neutral, then there is mixing in equilibrium where some educated individuals marry uneducated spouses and those who educate less because their labor-market return is lower extract a relatively larger share of the marital surplus. Conditional on the choice of schooling, couplesâ€™ career decisions affect the size of their marital surplus, but the existence of large and frictionless marriage markets can still produce efficient household specialization where the higher-wage spouse specializes in market production and the lower-wage spouse engages in homework. Even when cultural and social norms or the time requirements of homework dictate that wives devote relatively more time to homework, women can acquire more schooling than men if a gender wage gap exists but narrows with the level of education.

### Reid on Favors, Injuries, and the Natural Virtue of Justice

Reid argues that Humeâ€™s claim that justice is an artificial virtue is inconsistent with the fact that gratitude is a natural sentiment. This chapter shows that Reidâ€™s argument succeeds only given a philosophy of mind and action that Hume rejects. Among other things, Reid assumes that one can conceive of one of a pair of contradictories only if one can conceive of the otherâ€”a claim that Hume denies. So, in the case of justice, the disagreement between Hume and Reid is, at bottom, a disagreement over their respective conceptions of how the human mind works at its most fundamental level

### When the Subject is Gas, Politicians are Pumping a lot of Hot Air

Mixing politics and economics makes for a strange brew sometimes. Congressional Republicans oppose an increase in the federal minimum wage because they claim it would distort labor markets. On the other hand, the recent run-up in gasoline prices has led them to call for a repeal of the 4.3 cent-per-gallon gasoline tax enacted in 1993
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