45,515 research outputs found

    'The Sea is History': Transoceanic Perspectives on the Neo-Victorian Maritime Novel

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    My analysis rests on the hypothesis that these dispossessed collectives articulated their identities out of their transoceanic background; accordingly I argue that the maritime crossing and the fluid boundaries of the oceans provided socio-political possibilities of liberation for collectives oppressed by the machinery of Victorian imperialism. Nora Hague’s and Colum McCann’s novels are narrated in the Atlantic Ocean whereas Amitav Ghosh’s Ibis trilogy is set in the Indian Ocean. This PhD thesis navigates therefore in two different directions and aims at exploring both oceanic regions – as well as the cultural and historical connections between them – and their contribution to global narrations in the nineteenth century. Obviously, this PhD thesis acknowledges the existence of further oceanic zones as a limitation of this project. Due to spatial and analytical constraints, the Pacific and Arctic Oceans remain outside the focus of this PhD thesis but they indeed provide areas for further follow-up research in the neo-Victorian maritime novel for which this project lays the groundwork. The thesis is divided into 6 chapters. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute the critical and methodological basis of this PhD; in particular I provide an in-depth overview of maritime criticism (including a thorough roll-call of postcolonial thought) and neo-Victorian criticism. Chapter 4 analyses neo-Victorian narrations of the Atlantic, specifically Hague’s Letters from an Age of Reason and McCann’s TransAtlantic, and it focuses on the transatlantic interactions between African Americans and Victorian Britain, as well as between Irish immigrants escaping the Irish Famine and African American abolitionists. Chapter 5 moves the focus to the Indian Ocean and analyses Amitav Ghosh’s Ibis trilogy, paying particular attention to the phenomenon of indentureship and the material after-effects that Victorian transoceanic exploits in the Indian Ocean have triggered in today’s global capitalism. Chapter 6 provides the conclusions derived from the previous analysis, demonstrating that by applying the ‘Oceanic turn’ and maritime criticism to the analysis of neo-Victorianism and situating the analysis in debates on capitalism, globalisation and immigration, the neo-Victorian maritime novel makes sense of the inequities of contemporary globalisation and neo-liberal policies. Fecha de lectura de Tesis Doctoral: 22 febrero 2019.This PhD thesis examines a selection of postcolonial neo-Victorian novels in the context of oceanic migration during the nineteenth century. The Victorian period (1837-1901) in Britain features today as a fulcrum point for the concept of the nation as well as for transoceanic migration and global politics. In fact, by the end of the nineteenth century, the British Empire encompassed all the oceans of the world and it had a marked impact on the lives of millions of people. That said, this PhD thesis aims at establishing alternative perspectives on globalisation, global history and transculturation via an analysis of neo-Victorian novels that deal with race, hybridity and British imperial history in the context of transoceanic voyages during the nineteenth century. The oceanic focus that characterises this PhD thesis allows to think on, through and beyond rigid national and cultural boundaries that seem to be articulating current global politics, particularly in the face of the fact that far-right political parties are increasingly gathering support for policies based on the building of walls, the patrolling of borders and the hatred for the Other. The corpus of primary works that have been selected for qualitative analysis includes the following novels: Nora Hague’s Letters from an Age of Reason (2001); Colum McCann’s TransAtlantic (2013); and Amitav Ghosh’s Ibis trilogy, which comprises Sea of Poppies (2008), River of Smoke (2011) and Flood of Fire (2015). These neo-Victorian novels retrieve histories of transoceanic migrations during the Victorian era by colonial subjects such as African-American ex-slaves, black sailors, Irish immigrants or Asian indentured workers

    Identifying and responding to people with mild learning disabilities in the probation service

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    It has long been recognised that, like many other individuals, people with learningdisabilities find their way into the criminal justice system. This fact is not disputed. Whathas been disputed, however, is the extent to which those with learning disabilities arerepresented within the various agencies of the criminal justice system and the ways inwhich the criminal justice system (and society) should address this. Recently, social andlegislative confusion over the best way to deal with offenders with learning disabilities andmental health problems has meant that the waters have become even more muddied.Despite current government uncertainty concerning the best way to support offenders withlearning disabilities, the probation service is likely to continue to play a key role in thesupervision of such offenders. The three studies contained herein aim to clarify the extentto which those with learning disabilities are represented in the probation service, toexamine the effectiveness of probation for them and to explore some of the ways in whichprobation could be adapted to fit their needs.Study 1 and study 2 showed that around 10% of offenders on probation in Kent appearedto have an IQ below 75, putting them in the bottom 5% of the general population. Study 3was designed to assess some of the support needs of those with learning disabilities in theprobation service, finding that many of the materials used by the probation service arelikely to be too complex for those with learning disabilities to use effectively. To addressthis, a model for service provision is tentatively suggested. This is based on the findings ofthe three studies and a pragmatic assessment of what the probation service is likely to becapable of achieving in the near future

    Airportscape and its Effect on Airport Sense of Place and Destination Image Perception

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    Purpose – This study aims to validate a conceptual definition of airportscape and develop a multidimensional scale that integrates servicescape and service quality dimensions in order to comprehensively investigate airport service management. In addition, the study examines the structural relationships amongst airportscape, sense of place, airport image and destination image. Design/methodology/approach – Covariance-based structural equation modelling has been employed. This study has collected the responses from 1,189 Thai respondents who had their experience in an international airport in the past 12 months. Findings – Key findings reveal the set of three airportscape attributes which positively influenced the air traveller’s perceived sense of place. Four other dimensions were found to positively influence the airport image. The results also suggested the positive relationships amongst sense of place, airport image and destination image. Sense of place strongly predicted the destination image and airport image, and was found to be an important mediator of the relationship between airportscape dimension and perceived image variables Originality/value – The study validates the airportscape scale and introduces “sense of place”, a concept that has not been objectively investigated in the airport context, and in relation to tourism. The findings provide insights to airport managers and tourism authorities by examining areas that highlight an airport’s sense of place and representation of the destination. The study also strengthens the theoretical link between airport and tourism knowledge, by showing that the airport’s sense of place can strongly influence airport image and destination image. The result ascertains that the airport can be a representative of a destination through the creation of a sense of place

    The Gradual Disappearance Of Financial Literacy In Today\u27s World. What Is Financial Literacy And Why Is It So Important? My Own Story Of Acquisition

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    There is a growing concern in this country that the middle class is disappearing and not in the way one would hope. Instead of families moving into a higher socio-economic class and being able to provide richer life experiences for themselves and their children, vast numbers are shifting to a lower socio-economic status level. The gap between the affluent and those barely eking out an existence is increasing at an alarming rate. This trend will directly affect who can successfully attend college and who will be available and capable to perform the blue-collar jobs that are vital to the continuation of our economy. Many of these jobs are becoming increasingly complex and sophisticated. While they may not require a college degree, they do require additional post-secondary training and expertise. Longer reaching concerns are that a dwindling middle class equates to a smaller tax base and contributes to a larger segment of the population that needs financial assistance. The productive management of money is part of a concept known as financial literacy. People that have money take this knowledge for granted. Somewhere along the line, whether it was at home, in school, or from personal experiences, successful people learned the value of earning money and using it thoughtfully and intentionally in order to achieve a future goal. No one disputes the fact that personal choices and discretion are parts of the picture. Imagine, however, that the environment in which you grew up did not contain earning possibilities. Perhaps you had to work without pay caring for your siblings, leaving no time to go out and earn your own money. Maybe your family was in the situation where everything that each family member earned was required to try to make ends meet. The result can be a feeling of ignorance and powerlessness around financial literacy and a lack of understanding the difference it could make in your life. This dissertation examines these issues. As a Scholarly Personal Narrative, it will also relate the story of my own journey of acquiring financial literacy and how that knowledge has affected my life. It concludes with a proposal that I created for teaching the concepts of financial literacy to underserved members of our society living at the lower socio-economic level. This education is important because understanding financial literacy can build self-confidence, empowerment, and purpose. This knowledge can also set an example that parents can pass on to their children and future generations. I believe this is one possible route toward breaking the cycle of poverty

    Queens of the Hill: How Title IX Fares in the Hilltop Neighborhood of Columbus, Ohio

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    National research indicates that Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 leaves Black girls behind in the pursuit of gender equity. Low rates of participation and high dropout rates in girls sports plague low-income, majority-minority high schools. This thesis investigates whether the national research holds true in Columbus, Ohio, specifically at West High School. Following from a series of interviews with coaches, teachers, and a student, I find that West High School’s athletic program is Title IX compliant, but girls at West High School still face severe barriers to sports participation. A school can comply with Title IX and fall short of equal opportunity for sports participation. Title IX leaves girls at West High School behind because it is reliant on a top-down approach of administrative punishment, threatening the loss of federal funding. To achieve authentic gender equity, West High School and other low-income, majority-minority schools must supplement Title IX with a bottom-up approach that is community and culturally centered

    Universal Challenges of Policing Rooted in Colonialism in the United States and Nigeria

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    Growing awareness regarding police brutality has generated a massive shift in public views on police institutions and the need for reform. The universal challenges of police authority, abuse, and impunity plague policing institutions across the globe. The roots of many of these contemporary challenges can be traced to European colonization. This paper explores policing structures, abuse, and impunity in the United States and Nigeria

    Enforcement of Gun Control Laws and Minority Communities: Finding the Right Balance Between Public Safety and Limiting Mass Incarceration

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    This thesis is on the enforcement of gun control laws on minorities, and whether the enforcement of those laws discriminate against them. My research question is, “Does gun control still discriminate against non-white people?” I compared New York City and South Carolina. I wanted a liberal area with strict gun laws and a conservative area with loose gun laws. Those areas provided the necessary racial breakdown. I researched the statistics of people in prison for firearm violations in these areas and other crimes. I looked at the SAFE Act that was passed in NYC, and whether minority populations in prison increased after it was passed. I analyzed data from the NYPD, the SC Law Enforcement Division, and the SC Department of Public Safety. I used data from the NRA to see which gun control laws NYC and SC have. I predicted minority populations incarcerated would increase after the SAFE Act was passed, and there would be less minority populations incarcerated for gun crimes in SC than NYC. My findings were not what I expected. There were less Black people in prison for gun crimes after the SAFE Act was passed, and about the same for other minorities. There were lots of Black people arrested in SC for gun crimes, which was much higher than other crimes. This indicates 1) the SAFE Act is not discriminatory towards minorities, and 2) minorities are discriminated against with gun laws, including loose gun laws

    “You Have to be Resilient”: A Qualitative Study Exploring Advice Newcomer Youth Have for Other Newcomer Youth.

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    Research infrequently includes the perspectives of vulnerable and marginalized youth. As the population of newcomer youth in Canada continues to grow, it is imperative that attention is devoted not only to challenges they experience, but also to resilience factors they perceive to support their adjustment and well-being. To address this gap, this qualitative research explored newcomer youths’ experiences and advice for other newcomer youth who have recently arrived in Canada. Thirty-seven newcomer youth from two medium-sized cities in Ontario participated in focus groups. Participants ranged from 14 to 22 in age and identified mostly as female refugees from the Middle East. Through thematic analysis, five overarching themes were found across groups: (1) moving to a new country is hard, (2) maintain a healthy mindset, (3) take an active role in the adjustment process, (4) stay true to who you are, (5) and you are not alone. Youth described hardships that make moving to a new country difficult including lack of belonging due to racism and bullying, insufficient orientation to new systems, language barriers, and high levels of stress. Findings demonstrated youths’ resilience, coping skills, and strategies to lead meaningful lives. Youth discussed resilience strategies such as maintaining a connection with home culture and religion, reframing thinking to be positive, receiving emotional support, accessing community support at newcomer agencies, and building language proficiency. Findings provide implications for professionals working with newcomer youth and reflect the importance of addressing structural barriers and racism. The opportunity for newcomer youth to share experiences as experts in research may also help to promote resilience. Immigration accounts for approximately two-thirds of the population growth in Canada. (Statistics Canada, 2017a). While the economic class of immigrants (i.e. those who have specific occupational skills and experience to support the needs in Canada’s labor market) makes up the greatest proportion of newcomers admitted into the country each year, the Canadian government notably increased the number of refugees to be resettled into the country. An influx of nearly 100,000 refugees resettled in Canada between January 2015 and March 2018, many of whom were under the age of 18 (Child and Youth Refugee Research Coalition, 2018). Global trends reveal that we are presently experiencing one of the largest humanitarian crises in history as the number of forcibly displaced persons worldwide has grown substantially, reaching 70.8 million by the end of 2018 (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2018). As part of Canada’s humanitarian commitment to resettle those most at risk, the country had plans to welcome over 30,000 refugees in 2020 (IRCC, 2020). The term newcomer will be used throughout this paper as an inclusive category that describes individuals who have been in the country five years or less

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis
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