535,341 research outputs found

    Association of mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum Kelch13 gene (Pf3D7_1343700) with parasite clearance rates after artemisinin-based treatments-a WWARN individual patient data meta-analysis.

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    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infections with slow parasite clearance following artemisinin-based therapies are widespread in the Greater Mekong Subregion. A molecular marker of the slow clearance phenotype has been identified: single genetic changes within the propeller region of the Kelch13 protein (pfk13; Pf3D7_1343700). Global searches have identified almost 200 different non-synonymous mutant pfk13 genotypes. Most mutations occur at low prevalence and have uncertain functional significance. To characterize the impact of different pfk13 mutations on parasite clearance, we conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis of the associations between parasite clearance half-life (PC1/2) and pfk13 genotype based on a large set of individual patient records from Asia and Africa. METHODS: A systematic literature review following the PRISMA protocol was conducted to identify studies published between 2000 and 2017 which included frequent parasite counts and pfk13 genotyping. Four databases (Ovid Medline, PubMed, Ovid Embase, and Web of Science Core Collection) were searched. Eighteen studies (15 from Asia, 2 from Africa, and one multicenter study with sites on both continents) met inclusion criteria and were shared. Associations between the log transformed PC1/2 values and pfk13 genotype were assessed using multivariable regression models with random effects for study site. RESULTS: Both the pfk13 genotypes and the PC1/2 were available from 3250 (95%) patients (n = 3012 from Asia (93%), n = 238 from Africa (7%)). Among Asian isolates, all pfk13 propeller region mutant alleles observed in five or more specific isolates were associated with a 1.5- to 2.7-fold longer geometric mean PC1/2 compared to the PC1/2 of wild type isolates (all p ≤ 0.002). In addition, mutant allele E252Q located in the P. falciparum region of pfk13 was associated with 1.5-fold (95%CI 1.4-1.6) longer PC1/2. None of the isolates from four countries in Africa showed a significant difference between the PC1/2 of parasites with or without pfk13 propeller region mutations. Previously, the association of six pfk13 propeller mutant alleles with delayed parasite clearance had been confirmed. This analysis demonstrates that 15 additional pfk13 alleles are associated strongly with the slow-clearing phenotype in Southeast Asia. CONCLUSION: Pooled analysis associated 20 pfk13 propeller region mutant alleles with the slow clearance phenotype, including 15 mutations not confirmed previously

    Human Pappilomavirus Genotype in Cervical Tissue of Patients with Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3

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    Objectives: to determine the genotype of HPV in patients with precancerous lesions of cervical tissue.Materials and Methods: An observational study with cross sectional study of patients paraffin block CIN1, CIN2, CIN3 was conducted in Dr Soetomo Hospital. HPV DNA was extracted from paraffin blocks, then performed PCR and genotyping of HPV. The sample consisted of 28 patients with cervical tissue paraffin blocks CIN1, CIN2 and CIN3. Patients aged between 26-74 years (standard deviation 10,12).Results: HPV genotypes that infect patients with CIN1 were HPV16 and 18, CIN2 were HPV16 and 52 and CIN3 were HPV16, 67, and combined infection HPV16/67 and HPV52/67. HPV genotypes in a single infection were 26/28 (HPV16, HPV18, HPV52 and HPV67), and multiple infections were 2/28 (HPV16/67 and HPV52/67).Conclusion: The most dominant HPV genotypes infect patients with precancerous lesions of the cervix were HPV16, HPV67, HPV52, and HPV18

    Elevated interferon-stimulated gene transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells occurs in patients infected with genotype 1 but not genotype 3 hepatitis C virus

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    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be classified into seven distinct genotypes that are associated with differing pathologies and respond differently to antiviral therapy. In the UK, genotype 1 and 3 are present in approximately equal proportions. Chronic infection with HCV genotype 3 is associated with increased liver steatosis and reduced peripheral total cholesterol levels, which potentially influences peripheral immune responses. To understand these differences, we investigated host gene transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by microarray and quantitative PCR in patients with genotype 1 (n = 22) or genotype 3 infection (n = 22) and matched healthy controls (n = 15). Enrichment of genes involved in immune response and inflammatory pathways were present in patients infected with HCV genotype 1; however, no differences in genes involved in lipid or cholesterol metabolism were detected. This genotype-specific induction of genes is unrelated to IL28B genotype or previous treatment failure. Our data support the hypothesis that genotype 1 infection drives a skewed Type I interferon response and provides a foundation for future investigations into the host–pathogen interactions that underlie the genotype-specific clinical outcomes of chronic HCV infection

    Prevalence of mixed genotype hepatitis C virus infections in the UK as determined by genotype‐specific PCR and deep sequencing

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    The incidence of mixed genotype hepatitis C virus infections in the UK is largely unknown. As the efficacy of direct acting antivirals is variable across different genotypes, treatment regimens are tailored to the infecting genotype, which may pose issues for the treatment of underlying genotypes within undiagnosed mixed genotype HCV infections. There is therefore a need to accurately diagnose mixed genotype infections prior to treatment. PCR-based diagnostic tools were developed to screen for the occurrence of mixed genotype infections caused by the most common UK genotypes, 1a and 3, in a cohort of 506 individuals diagnosed with either of these genotypes. The overall prevalence rate of mixed infection was 3.8% however this rate was unevenly distributed, with 6.7% of individuals diagnosed with genotype 3 harbouring genotype 1a strains and only 0.8% of samples from genotype 1a patients harbouring genotype 3 (p<0.05). Mixed infection samples consisted of a major and a minor genotype, with the latter constituting less than 21% of the total viral load and, in 67% of cases, less than 1% of the viral load. Analysis of a subset of the cohort by Illumina PCR-next generation sequencing resulted in a much greater incidence rate than obtained by PCR. This may have occurred due to the non-quantitative nature of the technique and despite the designation of false positive thresholds based on negative controls

    Development of reverse-transcription PCR techniques to analyse the density and sex ratio of gametocytes in genetically diverse Plasmodium chabaudi infections

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    We have developed cross-genotype and genotype-specific quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays to detect and quantify the number of parasites, transmission stages (gametocytes) and male gametocytes in blood stage Plasmodium chabaudi infections. Our cross-genotype assays are reliable, repeatable and generate counts that correlate strongly (R(2)s > 90%) with counts expected from blood smears. Our genotype-specific assays can distinguish and quantify different stages of genetically distinct parasite clones (genotypes) in mixed infections and are as sensitive as our cross-genotype assays. Using these assays we show that gametocyte density and gametocyte sex ratios vary during infections for two genetically distinct parasite lines (genotypes) and present the first data to reveal how sex ratio is affected when each genotype experiences competition in mixed-genotype infections. Successful infection of mosquito vectors depends on both gametocyte density and their sex ratio and we discuss the implications of competition in genetically diverse infections for transmission success

    Associations between CXCR1 polymorphisms and pathogen-specific incidence rate of clinical mastitis, test-day somatic cell count, and test-day milk yield

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    The CXCR1 gene plays an important role in the innate immunity of the bovine mammary gland. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) CXCR1c.735C>G and c.980A>G and udder health have been identified before in small populations. A fluorescent multiprobe PCR assay was designed specifically and validated to genotype both SNP simultaneously in a reliable and cost-effective manner. In total, 3,106 cows from 50 commercial Flemish dairy herds were genotyped using this assay. Associations between genotype and detailed phenotypic data, including pathogen-specific incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM), test-day somatic cell count, and test-day milk yield (MY) were analyzed. Staphylococcus aureus IRCM tended to associate with SNP c.735C>G. Cows with genotype c.735GG had lower Staph. aureus IRCM compared with cows with genotype c.735CC (rate ratio = 0.35, 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.90). Additionally, a parity-specific association between Staph. aureus IRCM and SNP c.980A>G was detected. Heifers with genotype c.980GG had a lower Staph. aureus IRCM compared with heifers with genotype c.980AG (rate ratio = 0.15, 95% confidence interval = 0.04-0.56). Differences were less pronounced in multiparous cows. Associations between CXCR1 genotype and somatic cell count were not detected. However, MY was associated with SNP c.735C>G. Cows with genotype c.735GG out-produced cows with genotype c.735CC by 0.8 kg of milk/d. Results provide a basis for further research on the relation between CXCR1 polymorphism and pathogen-specific mastitis resistance and MY

    PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos.

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    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n=120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P≤0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P≤0.05) and PON1 192 (P≤0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal

    Association between MAPT polymorphism but not APOE promoter and elite rugby athlete status

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    INTRODUCTION: Incidence and outcomes of concussions have been hypothesised to be genetically influenced. The APOE Promoter G219T (rs405509) polymorphism has been associated with differential promoter activity and unfavourable outcomes after traumatic brain injury. The TT genotype is associated with a 3-fold greater risk of multiple concussions. The TT genotype of MAPT (rs10445337) has also been associated with poorer outcomes after concussion. Rugby has one of the highest incidences of concussion in sport, so it was hypothesised that APOE Promoter TT and MAPT TT genotypes would be less prevalent in elite rugby athletes because those genotypes, previously associated with increased risk, would be less compatible with achieving elite athlete status. METHODS: Participants were from the RugbyGene project, comprising elite Caucasian male rugby athletes (n = 528; mean (standard deviation) height 1.85 (0.07) m, mass 101 (14) kg, age 29 (7) yr), including 420 rugby union (RU) athletes that for some analyses were divided into forwards and backs and 108 rugby league (RL) athletes. Non-athletes were 592 Caucasian men and women (57% male, height 1.72 (0.10) m, mass 74 (14) kg, age 31 (7) yr). PCR of genomic DNA was used to determine genotypes using TaqMan probes, then groups were compared using χ2 and odds ratio (OR) statistics. RESULTS: All genotype data were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. For MAPT (rs10445337), the risk genotype (TT) was underrepresented in rugby athletes (60%) compared to non-athletes (66%), CT more common in rugby athletes (34%) than non-athletes (29%) and little difference in CC genotype frequencies (χ2 = 7.092, P = 0.029; TT genotype frequency OR = 0.80, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.62-1.02). There were no differences in MAPT (rs10445337) genotype frequencies between RU forwards and backs. For APOE Promoter G219T (rs405509), there were no differences in genotype frequencies between all athletes (RU and RL) and non-athletes (27% TT genotype in players and non-athletes), nor between RU forwards and backs. CONCLUSION: The MAPT (rs10445337) TT genotype is 6% less common in elite rugby athletes than non-athletes. Therefore, carrying at least one rs10445337 C allele appears to increase the probability of sustained career success in the high-risk concussion environment of elite rugby, perhaps via a greater ability to recover from concussions.Peer reviewe