47 research outputs found

    Proteomic Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Proximal Fluids: Validation of Elevated Peroxiredoxin 1 in Patient Peripheral Circulation

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    Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Unfortunately, a validated protein biomarker-screening test to detect early stage disease from peripheral blood has not yet been developed. The present investigation assesses the ability to identify tumor relevant proteins from ovarian cancer proximal fluids, including tissue interstitial fluid (TIF) and corresponding ascites, from patients with papillary serous EOC and translates these findings to targeted blood-based immunoassays. Methodology/Principal Findings: Paired TIF and ascites collected from four papillary serous EOC patients at the time of surgery underwent immunodepletion, resolution by 1D gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion for analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which resulted in an aggregate identification of 569 and 171 proteins from TIF and ascites, respectively. Of these, peroxiredoxin I (PRDX1) was selected for validation in serum by ELISA and demonstrated to be present and significantly elevated (p = 0.0188) in 20 EOC patients with a mean level of 26.0 ng/mL (±9.27 SEM) as compared to 4.19 ng/mL (±2.58 SEM) from 16 patients with normal/benign ovarian pathology. Conclusions/Significance: We have utilized a workflow for harvesting EOC-relevant proximal biofluids, including TIF and ascites, for proteomic analysis. Among the differentially abundant proteins identified from these proximal fluids, PRDX1 was demonstrated to be present in serum and shown by ELISA to be elevated by nearly 6-fold in papillary serous EOC patients relative to normal/benign patients. Our findings demonstrate the facile ability to discover potential EOC-relevant proteins in proximal fluids and confirm their presence in peripheral blood serum. In addition, our finding of elevated levels of PRDX1 in the serum of EOC patients versus normal/benign patients warrants further evaluation as a tumor specific biomarker for EOC. © 2011 Hoskins et al

    Predictive modeling for determination of microscopic residual disease at primary cytoreduction: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group 182 Study

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    Microscopic residual disease following complete cytoreduction (R0) is associated with a significant survival benefit for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Our objective was to develop a prediction model for R0 to support surgeons in their clinical care decisions.Demographic, pathologic, surgical, and CA125 data were collected from GOG 182 records. Patients enrolled prior to September 1, 2003 were used for the training model while those enrolled after constituted the validation data set. Univariate analysis was performed to identify significant predictors of R0 and these variables were subsequently analyzed using multivariable regression. The regression model was reduced using backward selection and predictive accuracy was quantified using area under the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) in both the training and the validation data sets.Of the 3882 patients enrolled in GOG 182, 1480 had complete clinical data available for the analysis. The training data set consisted of 1007 patients (234 with R0) while the validation set was comprised of 473 patients (122 with R0). The reduced multivariable regression model demonstrated several variables predictive of R0 at cytoreduction: Disease Score (DS) ( < 0.001), stage ( = 0.009), CA125 ( < 0.001), ascites ( < 0.001), and stage-age interaction ( = 0.01). Applying the prediction model to the validation data resulted in an AUC of 0.73 (0.67 to 0.78, 95% CI). Inclusion of DS enhanced the model performance to an AUC of 0.83 (0.79 to 0.88, 95% CI).We developed and validated a prediction model for R0 that offers improved performance over previously reported models for prediction of residual disease. The performance of the prediction model suggests additional factors (i.e. imaging, molecular profiling, etc.) should be explored in the future for a more clinically actionable tool

    Differential Analysis of Ovarian and Endometrial Cancers Identifies a Methylator Phenotype

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    Despite improved outcomes in the past 30 years, less than half of all women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer live five years beyond their diagnosis. Although typically treated as a single disease, epithelial ovarian cancer includes several distinct histological subtypes, such as papillary serous and endometrioid carcinomas. To address whether the morphological differences seen in these carcinomas represent distinct characteristics at the molecular level we analyzed DNA methylation patterns in 11 papillary serous tumors, 9 endometrioid ovarian tumors, 4 normal fallopian tube samples and 6 normal endometrial tissues, plus 8 normal fallopian tube and 4 serous samples from TCGA. For comparison within the endometrioid subtype we added 6 primary uterine endometrioid tumors and 5 endometrioid metastases from uterus to ovary. Data was obtained from 27,578 CpG dinucleotides occurring in or near promoter regions of 14,495 genes. We identified 36 locations with significant increases or decreases in methylation in comparisons of serous tumors and normal fallopian tube samples. Moreover, unsupervised clustering techniques applied to all samples showed three major profiles comprising mostly normal samples, serous tumors, and endometrioid tumors including ovarian, uterine and metastatic origins. The clustering analysis identified 60 differentially methylated sites between the serous group and the normal group. An unrelated set of 25 serous tumors validated the reproducibility of the methylation patterns. In contrast, >1,000 genes were differentially methylated between endometrioid tumors and normal samples. This finding is consistent with a generalized regulatory disruption caused by a methylator phenotype. Through DNA methylation analyses we have identified genes with known roles in ovarian carcinoma etiology, whereas pathway analyses provided biological insight to the role of novel genes. Our finding of differences between serous and endometrioid ovarian tumors indicates that intervention strategies could be developed to specifically address subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Comparison of ERCC1/XPF genetic variation, mRNA and protein levels in women with advanced stage ovarian cancer treated with intraperitoneal platinum.

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    OBJECTIVE: Approximately 20% of patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are refractory or develop early recurrence. Identifying these patients early could reduce treatment-associated morbidity and allow quicker transfer to more effective therapies. Much attention has focused on ERCC1 as a potential predictor of response to therapy because of its essential role in the repair of platinum-induced DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to accurately measure protein levels of ERCC1 and its essential binding partner XPF from patients with EOC treated with platinum-based therapy and determine if protein levels correlate with mRNA levels, patient genotypes or clinical outcomes. METHODS: ERCC1 and XPF mRNA and protein levels were measured in frozen EOC specimens from 41 patients receiving intraperitoneal platinum-based chemotherapy using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blots. Genotypes of common nucleotide polymorphisms were also analyzed. Patient outcomes included progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Expression of ERCC1 and XPF were tightly correlated with one another at both the mRNA and protein level. However, the mRNA and protein levels of ERCC1 were not positively correlated. Likewise, none of the SNPs analyzed correlated with ERCC1 or XPF protein levels. There was an inverse correlation between mRNA levels and patient outcomes. CONCLUSION: Neither genotype nor mRNA levels are predictive of protein expression. Despite this, low ERCC1 mRNA significantly correlated with improved PFS and OS

    A cost-effectiveness analysis of a chemoresponse assay for treatment of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer

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    AbstractObjectiveClinical validation of a chemoresponse assay was recently published, demonstrating a significant increase in overall survival in recurrent ovarian cancer patients treated with therapies to which their tumor was sensitive in the assay. The current study investigates the cost effectiveness of using the assay at the time of ovarian cancer recurrence from the payer's perspective.MethodsUsing a Markov state transition model, patient characteristics and survival data from the recent clinical study, the cumulative costs over the study horizon (71months) for both the baseline (no assay) and intervention (assay consistent, hypothetical) cohorts were evaluated.ResultsThe assay consistent cohort had an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 6206perlifeyearsaved(LYS),ascomparedtothebaselinecohort.Costeffectivenesswasfurtherdemonstratedinplatinumsensitiveandplatinumresistantpopulationstreatedwithassaysensitivetherapies,withICERsof6206 per life year saved (LYS), as compared to the baseline cohort. Cost-effectiveness was further demonstrated in platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant populations treated with assay-sensitive therapies, with ICERs of 2773 per LYS and $2736 per LYS, respectively.ConclusionsThe use of a chemoresponse assay to inform treatment decisions in recurrent ovarian cancer patients has the potential to be cost-effective in both platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant patients

    Recurrent patterns of DNA methylation in the ZNF154, CASP8, and VHL promoters across a wide spectrum of human solid epithelial tumors and cancer cell lines

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    The study of aberrant DNA methylation in cancer holds the key to the discovery of novel biological markers for diagnostics and can help to delineate important mechanisms of disease. We have identified 12 loci that are differentially methylated in serous ovarian cancers and endometrioid ovarian and endometrial cancers with respect to normal control samples. The strongest signal showed hypermethylation in tumors at a CpG island within the ZNF154 promoter. We show that hypermethylation of this locus is recurrent across solid human epithelial tumor samples for 15 of 16 distinct cancer types from TCGA. Furthermore, ZNF154 hypermethylation is strikingly present across a diverse panel of ENCODE cell lines, but only in those derived from tumor cells. By extending our analysis from the Illumina 27K Infinium platform to the 450K platform, to sequencing of PCR amplicons from bisulfite treated DNA, we demonstrate that hypermethylation extends across the breadth of the ZNF154 CpG island. We have also identified recurrent hypomethylation in two genomic regions associated with CASP8 and VHL. These three genes exhibit significant negative correlation between methylation and gene expression across many cancer types, as well as patterns of DNaseI hypersensitivity and histone marks that reflect different chromatin accessibility in cancer vs. normal cell lines. Our findings emphasize hypermethylation of ZNF154 as a biological marker of relevance for tumor identification. Epigenetic modifications affecting the promoters of ZNF154, CASP8, and VHL are shared across a vast array of tumor types and may therefore be important for understanding the genomic landscape of cancer