8 research outputs found

    DataSheet1_Freshwater salinization syndrome limits management efforts to improve water quality.pdf

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    Freshwater Salinization Syndrome (FSS) refers to groups of biological, physical, and chemical impacts which commonly occur together in response to salinization. FSS can be assessed by the mobilization of chemical mixtures, termed “chemical cocktails”, in watersheds. Currently, we do not know if salinization and mobilization of chemical cocktails along streams can be mitigated or reversed using restoration and conservation strategies. We investigated 1) the formation of chemical cocktails temporally and spatially along streams experiencing different levels of restoration and riparian forest conservation and 2) the potential for attenuation of chemical cocktails and salt ions along flowpaths through conservation and restoration areas. We monitored high-frequency temporal and longitudinal changes in streamwater chemistry in response to different pollution events (i.e., road salt, stormwater runoff, wastewater effluent, and baseflow conditions) and several types of watershed management or conservation efforts in six urban watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that chemical cocktails which formed along flowpaths (i.e., permanent reaches of a stream) varied due to pollution events. In response to winter road salt applications, the chemical cocktails were enriched in salts and metals (e.g., Na+, Mn, and Cu). During most baseflow and stormflow conditions, chemical cocktails were less enriched in salt ions and trace metals. Downstream attenuation of salt ions occurred during baseflow and stormflow conditions along flowpaths through regional parks, stream-floodplain restorations, and a national park. Conversely, chemical mixtures of salt ions and metals, which formed in response to multiple road salt applications or prolonged road salt exposure, did not show patterns of rapid attenuation downstream. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate variables that influence changes in chemical cocktails along flowpaths. Attenuation and dilution of salt ions and chemical cocktails along stream flowpaths was significantly related to riparian forest buffer width, types of salt pollution, and distance downstream. Although salt ions and chemical cocktails can be attenuated and diluted in response to conservation and restoration efforts at lower concentration ranges, there can be limitations in attenuation during road salt events, particularly if storm drains bypass riparian buffers.</p

    Increased River Alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.

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    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260 000 km<sup>2</sup>. We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ∼40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air–water exchange of CO<sub>2,</sub> coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production

    Newcomer et al. 2012 (Ecological Monographs) Organic C and Denitrification in Streams

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    The file “Newcomer et al. 2012 (Ecological Monographs) Organic C and Denitrification in Streams.xlsx” provides original data from the manuscript. The worksheets are named to correspond with the figures in the manuscript. “Figure 4” has field measurements of nitrate and DOC loads (g ha-1 day-1) and runoff (mm day-1). We measured discharge at Spring Branch and discharge was downloaded from USGS gaging stations at the other sites. “Figure 5” was created using discharge (cfs) downloaded from USGS gaging stations and dividing it by watershed area to get runoff (mm day-1). “Figure 6” has field measurements of mean C:N molar ratios for leaves, periphyton, grass, sediment, and stream particulate organic matter (POM). “Figure 7” has field measurements of 15N and 13C stable isotope signatures for leaves, periphyton, grass, sediment, and stream POM. “Figure 8” has laboratory measurements of denitrification potentials associated with glucose versus nitrate amendments. “Figure 9” has laboratory measurements of denitrification potentials associated with the use of leaves, periphyton, and grass as a carbon source

    Percent change in nitrate export in response to stream burial simulation scenarios.

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    <p>The simulation scenarios involve an even distribution of burial across the watershed with incremental increases of 5% and include: 1) Allowing both uptake rate constants and water velocities to change in response to burial (Combined response); 2) Allowing water velocity to change following burial, but holding uptake rate constants at open reach values; and 3) Allowing uptake rate constants to change following burial, but holding water velocities at open reach values.</p

    Stream burial is an extreme, but ubiquitous, consequence of urbanization in stream ecosystems.

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    <p>The buried stream channels in the cited studies were constructed from various materials including (a) a cement-lined corrugated metal pipe in Baltimore, Maryland (USA), (b) a concrete tunnel in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA), and (c) a corrugated metal pipe in Cincinnati.</p

    Results of simulation scenarios involving an even distribution of burial across the watershed with incremental increases of 5%.

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    <p>The primary y-axis and solid line represent the average volumetric NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> uptake rate among in the open reaches. The secondary y-axis and dashed line represent total NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> uptake in the open reaches.</p

    Box and whisker plots of nitrate uptake velocity (ʋ<sub>f</sub>) in the buried and open reaches in Cincinnati, Ohio and Baltimore, Maryland, as reported in Beaulieu et al. [20] and Pennino et al. [21].

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    <p>Literature data were derived from a recent survey of 72 streams spanning several biomes and land-use conditions [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0132256#pone.0132256.ref016" target="_blank">16</a>]. Plots display 10<sup>th</sup>, 25<sup>th</sup>, 50<sup>th</sup>, 75<sup>th</sup>, and 90<sup>th</sup> percentiles and individual data points outside the 10<sup>th</sup> and 90<sup>th</sup> percentiles. Nitrate uptake velocity was 13 times greater in open than buried reaches (p<0.001, paired <i>t</i>-test).</p

    Evolution of Sediment Plumes in the Chesapeake Bay and Implications of Climate Variability

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    Fluvial sediment transport impacts fisheries, marine ecosystems, and human health. In the upper Chesapeake Bay, river-induced sediment plumes are generally known as either a monotonic spatial shape or a turbidity maximum. Little is known about plume evolution in response to variation in streamflow and extreme discharge of sediment. Here we propose a typology of sediment plumes in the upper Chesapeake Bay using a 17 year time series of satellite-derived suspended sediment concentration. On the basis of estimated fluvial and wind contributions, we define an intermittent/wind-dominated type and a continuous type, the latter of which is further divided into four subtypes based on spatial features of plumes, which we refer to as Injection, Transport, Temporary Turbidity-Maximum, and Persistent Turbidity-Maximum. The four continuous types exhibit a consistent sequence of evolution within 1 week to 1 month following flood events. We also identify a “shift” in typology with increased frequency of Turbidity-Maximum types before and after Hurricane Ivan (2004), which implies that extreme events have longer-lasting effects upon estuarine suspended sediment than previously considered. These results can serve as a diagnostic tool to better predict distribution and impacts of estuarine suspended sediment in response to changes in climate and land use
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