5,737 research outputs found

    Transition probability studies in ¹⁷⁵Au

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    Transition probabilities have been measured between the low-lying yrast states in ¹⁷⁵Au by employing the recoil distance Doppler-shift method combined with the selective recoil-decay tagging technique. Reduced transition probabilities and magnitudes of transition quadrupole moments have been extracted from measured lifetimes allowing dramatic changes in nuclear structure within a low excitation-energy range to probed. The transition quadrupole moment data are discussed in terms of available systematics as a function of atomic number and aligned angular momentum

    The DESPEC setup for GSI and FAIR

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    Author Correction: The power of genetic diversity in genome-wide association studies of lipids

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    CSF rhinorrhoea after endonasal intervention to the skull base (CRANIAL): A multicentre prospective observational study

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    ObjectiveDespite progress in endonasal skull-base neurosurgery, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea remains common and significant. The CRANIAL study sought to determine 1) the scope of skull-base repair methods used, and 2) corresponding rates of postoperative CSF rhinorrhoea in the endonasal transsphenoidal approach (TSA) and the expanded endonasal approach (EEA) for skull-base tumors.MethodsA prospective observational cohort study of 30 centres performing endonasal skull-base neurosurgery in the UK and Ireland (representing 91% of adult units). Patients were identified for 6 months and followed up for 6 months. Data collection and analysis was guided by our published protocol and pilot studies. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used for analysis.ResultsA total of 866 patients were included - 726 TSA (84%) and 140 EEA (16%). There was significant heterogeneity in repair protocols across centres. In TSA cases, nasal packing (519/726, 72%), tissue glues (474/726, 65%) and hemostatic agents (439/726, 61%) were the most common skull base repair techniques. Comparatively, pedicled flaps (90/140, 64%), CSF diversion (38/140, 27%), buttresses (17/140, 12%) and gasket sealing (11/140, 9%) were more commonly used in EEA cases. CSF rhinorrhoea (biochemically confirmed or requiring re-operation) occurred in 3.9% of TSA (28/726) and 7.1% of EEA (10/140) cases. A significant number of patients with CSF rhinorrhoea (15/38, 39%) occurred when no intraoperative CSF leak was reported. On multivariate analysis, there may be marginal benefits with using tissue glues in TSA (OR: 0.2, CI: 0.1-0.7, p&amp;lt;0.01), but no other technique reached significance. There was evidence that certain characteristics make CSF rhinorrhoea more likely – such as previous endonasal surgery and the presence of intraoperative CSF leak.ConclusionsThere is a wide range of skull base repair techniques used across centres. Overall, CSF rhinorrhoea rates across the UK and Ireland are lower than generally reported in the literature. A large proportion of postoperative leaks occurred in the context of occult intraoperative CSF leaks, and decisions for universal sellar repairs should consider the risks and cost-effectiveness of repair strategies. Future work could include longer-term, higher-volume studies, such as a registry; and high-quality interventional studies.</jats:sec

    Pharmacological modulation of TSPO in microglia/macrophages and neurons in a chronic neurodegenerative model of prion disease

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    Neuroinflammation is an important component of many neurodegenerative diseases, whether as a primary cause or a secondary outcome. For that reason, either as diagnostic tools or to monitor progression and/or pharmacological interventions, there is a need for robust biomarkers of neuroinflammation in the brain. Mitochondrial TSPO (18 kDa Translocator protein) is one of few available biomarkers of neuroinflammation for which there are clinically available PET imaging agents. In this study, we further characterised neuroinflammation in a mouse model of prion-induced chronic neurodegeneration (ME7) including a pharmacological intervention via a CSF1R inhibitor. This was achieved by autoradiographic binding of the second-generation TSPO tracer, [3H]PBR28, along with a more comprehensive examination of the cellular contributors to the TSPO signal changes by immunohistochemistry. We observed regional increases of TSPO in the ME7 mouse brains, particularly in the hippocampus, cortex and thalamus. This increased TSPO signal was detected in the cells of microglia/macrophage lineage as well as in astrocytes, endothelial cells and neurons. Importantly, we show that the selective CSF1R inhibitor, JNJ-40346527 (JNJ527), attenuated the disease-dependent increase in TSPO signal, particularly in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where JNJ527 attenuated the number of Iba1+ microglia and neurons, but not GFAP+ astrocytes or endothelial cells. These findings suggest that [3H]PBR28 quantitative autoradiography in combination with immunohistochemistry are important translational tools for detecting and quantifying neuroinflammation, and its treatments, in neurodegenerative disease. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although TSPO overexpression in the ME7 brains was driven by various cell types, the therapeutic effect of the CSF1R inhibitor was primarily to modulate TSPO expression in microglia and neurons, which identifies an important route of biological action of this particular CSF1R inhibitor and provides an example of a cell-specific effect of this type of therapeutic agent on the neuroinflammatory process

    Determinants of recovery from post-COVID-19 dyspnoea: analysis of UK prospective cohorts of hospitalised COVID-19 patients and community-based controls

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    Background The risk factors for recovery from COVID-19 dyspnoea are poorly understood. We investigated determinants of recovery from dyspnoea in adults with COVID-19 and compared these to determinants of recovery from non-COVID-19 dyspnoea. Methods We used data from two prospective cohort studies: PHOSP-COVID (patients hospitalised between March 2020 and April 2021 with COVID-19) and COVIDENCE UK (community cohort studied over the same time period). PHOSP-COVID data were collected during hospitalisation and at 5-month and 1-year follow-up visits. COVIDENCE UK data were obtained through baseline and monthly online questionnaires. Dyspnoea was measured in both cohorts with the Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify determinants associated with a reduction in dyspnoea between 5-month and 1-year follow-up. Findings We included 990 PHOSP-COVID and 3309 COVIDENCE UK participants. We observed higher odds of improvement between 5-month and 1-year follow-up among PHOSP-COVID participants who were younger (odds ratio 1.02 per year, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), male (1.54, 1.16–2.04), neither obese nor severely obese (1.82, 1.06–3.13 and 4.19, 2.14–8.19, respectively), had no pre-existing anxiety or depression (1.56, 1.09–2.22) or cardiovascular disease (1.33, 1.00–1.79), and shorter hospital admission (1.01 per day, 1.00–1.02). Similar associations were found in those recovering from non-COVID-19 dyspnoea, excluding age (and length of hospital admission). Interpretation Factors associated with dyspnoea recovery at 1-year post-discharge among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 were similar to those among community controls without COVID-19. Funding PHOSP-COVID is supported by a grant from the MRC-UK Research and Innovation and the Department of Health and Social Care through the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) rapid response panel to tackle COVID-19. The views expressed in the publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the National Health Service (NHS), the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care. COVIDENCE UK is supported by the UK Research and Innovation, the National Institute for Health Research, and Barts Charity. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the funders

    Ethical and practical considerations for including marginalised groups in quantitative survey research

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    This paper considers the ethical and practical issues of recruiting for, and administering a quantitative survey with marginalised populations. These issues were identified through a focus group discussion, which consolidated and expanded upon informal conversations held previously by five researchers about their experiences of conducting a face-to-face survey (using predominantly quantitative questions) with people who used amphetamine type stimulant drugs in North East England, UK. Inductive and deductive thematic analysis of the focus group discussion led to the generation of three key themes: researcher positionality, emotions, and role dilemmas; study design; and ethics in practice. This paper therefore aims to extend literature which explores ethical and practical issues involved in studies with marginalised populations. It makes methodological suggestions for how work across a range of disciplines could make face-to-face survey research, and future studies with marginalised populations, more inclusive for both participants and researchers
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