310 research outputs found

    Beyond Antagonism: Legal Protection of Foreign Investment in the Natural Resources Sector

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    The essay examines the legal protection of foreign investment in the natural resources sector, keeping in mind the pivotal role the sector may play in the economic development of the host State as well as the need to strike a balance between the private and public interests at stake. After elaborating on the notions of permanent sovereignty over natural resources and sustainable development, it discusses the main questions related to the exercise of regulatory powers by the host State, the protection of social values, and the promotion of good governance. It finally attempts to identify the sources of tension and possibly conflict with a view of reconciling the competing rights and interests of stakeholders

    Enabling Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Single Components in ECHAM6

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    Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) can be used to improve climate simulations since these exhibit features on multiple scales which would be too expensive to resolve using non-adaptive meshes. In particular, long-term climate simulations only allow for low resolution simulations using current computational resources. We apply AMR to single components of the existing earth system model (ESM) instead of constructing a complex ESM based on AMR. In order to compatibly incorporate AMR into an existing model, we explore the applicability of a tree-based data structure. Using a numerical scheme for tracer transport in ECHAM6, we test the performance of AMR with our data structure utilizing an idealized test case. The numerical results show that the augmented data structure is compatible with the data structure of the original model and also demonstrate improvements of the efficiency compared to non-adaptive meshes

    Analysis of intercomponent energy transfer in the interaction of oscillating-grid turbulence with an impermeable boundary

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    New experimental results are presented that investigate the nature of the intercomponent energy transfer that occurs in the interaction between oscillating-grid turbulence and a solid impermeable boundary, using instantaneous velocity measurements obtained from two-dimensional particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Estimates of the pressure-strain correlation term of the transport equation of the Reynolds stress tensor, which represents intercomponent energy transfer, are obtained using the PIV data from a balance of the remaining terms of the transport equation. The influence of the pressure-strain correlation term on the flow is examined by computing the energy spectra and conditional turbulent statistics associated with events in which intercomponent energy transfer is thought to be concentrated. Data reported here is in support of viscous and `return-to-isotropy' mechanisms governing the intercomponent energy transfer previously proposed, respectively, by Perot & Moin [B. Perot and P. Moin, J. Fluid Mech., 295, 199-227 (1995).] and Walker et al. [D. T. Walker, R. I. Leighton and L. O. Garza-Rios, J. Fluid Mech., 320, 19-51 (1996)]. However, the data reported also indicate the presence of a weak net intercomponent energy transfer from the boundary-normal velocity component to the boundary-tangential velocity components over a thin region outside the viscous sublayer which is not captured within existing models of intercomponent energy transfer at the boundary

    A method for reducing mean flow in oscillating‑grid turbulence

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    Oscillating-grid turbulence (OGT) is an experimental tool that has been widely used to study the role of turbulent fluctuations under conditions of small mean flow. We report experiments to investigate the structure of the turbulent flow produced by an oscillating grid, using velocity measurements obtained through the application of two-dimensional particle image velocimetry in the vertical plane through the centre of the grid. Ensemble averages of the fluid velocity measurements at specific stages of the grid’s oscillation indicate that mean flow is induced in OGT by the merging of grid-induced jets close to the tank sidewalls. The installation of an open-ended ‘inner box’ (with its top edge positioned just below the bottom of the grid’s oscillation) is shown to inhibit the merging of the jets, thereby resulting in a reduction in the magnitude of the mean flow within the interior of the inner box region. Measurements of the time-averaged root-mean-square turbulent velocity components and the time-averaged turbulent kinetic energy flux indicate that the installation of the inner box results in turbulence that is in good agreement with the well-established models of OGT across the central 50% of the inner box’s width, but that distinct anisotropic regions exist adjacent to the vertical sidewalls. We anticipate that this simple amendment to reduce the mean flow present in OGT can be readily used in future work that utilises OGT to isolate the effects of turbulent fluctuations from those of the mean flow

    2017 Research & Innovation Day Program

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    A one day showcase of applied research, social innovation, scholarship projects and activities.https://first.fanshawec.ca/cri_cripublications/1004/thumbnail.jp

    High prevalence of early repolarization in the paediatric relatives of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome victims and in normal controls

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    AIMS: Elevation of the ECG J-point in the inferior and lateral leads (early repolarization) has been described in survivors of ventricular fibrillation (VF) arrest and occurs in adult first-degree relatives of sudden cardiac death (SCD) probands at a frequency significantly greater than in controls, raising the possibility that this could represent an independent risk factor in the aetiology of SCD. However, data on early repolarization in the paediatric population are lacking. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of early repolarization in paediatric first-degree relatives of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) victims. METHODS AND RESULTS: Paediatric relatives (aged 1 mV from baseline. The ECGs of 77 consecutive paediatric first-degree relatives of SADS victims from 46 families were reviewed by two assessors. J-point elevation was present in 24 patients (31%) of this patient group compared with the reported prevalence of 5–13% in the published general paediatric population (P = 0.02) and that of 19% in the internal control group (P = 0.07). Subgroup analysis according to J-point elevation and ST segment morphologies showed a significantly higher prevalence of inferior early repolarization 0.1–0.2 mV in the study group compared with controls (75 vs. 38%; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Inferolateral J-point elevation occurs in a substantial proportion of paediatric first-degree relatives of SADS probands with a similar prevalence to that described in adults. This suggests that early repolarization could be an important inherited trait when evaluating relatives of SADS victims. However, prospective follow-up of this group of children is important to establish the implication of this finding in future risk stratification, given the apparently high prevalence in normal individuals
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