113,978 research outputs found

    Table_1_Profiling of plasma extracellular vesicles identifies proteins that strongly associate with patient’s global assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.xlsx

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    BackgroundRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic synovial inflammation and cartilage/bone damage. Intercellular messengers such as IL-1 and TNF play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of RA but have limited diagnostic and prognostic values. Therefore, we assessed whether the protein content of the recently discovered extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have gained attention in the pathogenesis of RA, correlates with disease activity parameters in RA patients.MethodsWe identified and quantified proteins in plasma-derived EVs (pEVs), isolated by size exclusion chromatography from 17 RA patients by mass spectrophotometry (MS). Quantified protein levels were correlated with laboratory and clinical parameters and the patient’s own global assessment of their disease activity (PGA-VAS). In a second MS run, the pEV proteins of nine other RA patients were quantified and compared to those from nine healthy controls (HC).ResultsNo differences were observed in the concentration, size, and protein content of pEVs from RA patients. Proteomics revealed >95% overlapping proteins in RA-pEVs, compared to HC-pEVs (data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD046058). Remarkably, in both runs, the level of far more RA-pEV proteins correlated positively to PGA-VAS than to either clinical or laboratory parameters. Interestingly, all observed PGA-VAS positively correlated RA-pEV proteins were associated with the actin-cytoskeleton linker proteins, ezrin, and moesin.ConclusionOur observation suggests that PGA-VAS (loss of vitality) may have a different underlying pathological mechanism in RA, possibly related to enhanced muscle actin-cytoskeleton activity. Furthermore, our study contributes to the growing awareness and evidence that pEVs contain valuable biomarkers for diseases, with added value for RA patients.</p

    Predicting survival in patients with 'non-high-risk' acute variceal bleeding receiving ÎČ-blockers+ligation to prevent re-bleeding.

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    BACKGROUND&AIMS Pre-emptive transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is the treatment of choice in high-risk acute variceal bleeding (AVB; i.e., Child-Turcotte-Pugh [CTP] B8-9+active bleeding/C10-13). Nevertheless, 'non-high-risk' patients with poor outcomes remain despite the combination of non-selective beta-blockers (NSBB) and endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) for secondary prophylaxis. We investigated prognostic factors for re-bleeding and mortality in 'non-high-risk' AVB to identify subgroups who may benefit from more potent treatments (i.e., TIPS) to prevent further decompensation and mortality. METHODS 2225 adults with cirrhosis and variceal bleeding were prospectively recruited at 34 centres between 2011-2015; for the purpose of this study, case definitions and information on prognostic indicators at index AVB and on day 5 were further refined in low-risk patients. 581 well-characterised low-risk patients without failure to control bleeding or TIPS contraindications who were managed by NSBB/EVL were finally included. Patients were followed for one year. RESULTS Overall, 90 patients (15%) re-bled and 70 (12%) patients died during follow-up. Using clinical routine data, no meaningful predictors of re-bleeding were identified. However, re-bleeding (included as a time-dependent co-variable) increased mortality, even after accounting for differences in patient characteristics (adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio:2.57[95%CI:1.43-4.62];p=0.002). A nomogram including CTP, creatinine, and sodium measured at baseline accurately (concordance: 0.752) stratified the risk of death. CONCLUSION The majority of 'non-high-risk' patients with AVB have an excellent outcome, if treated according to current recommendations. However, about one fifth of patients, i.e., those with CTP ≄8 and/or high creatinine levels or hyponatremia, have a considerable risk of death within 1 year of the index bleed. Future clinical trials should investigate whether elective TIPS placement reduces mortality in these patients

    More Powerful Tests for Anomalies in the China A-Share Market

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    Research into asset pricing anomalies in the China A-share market is hampered given the short time series of available returns. Even when average excess returns on candidate factor portfolios are economically sizeable, conventional portfolio sorting methods lack statistical power. We apply an efficient sorting procedure that combines firm characteristics with the covariance matrix. For the China A-share market, we find that the efficient sorting procedure doubles the t-statistics compared to conventional portfolio sorts, leading to nine instead of three significant anomalies over the post-reform period from 2008 to 2020. We find significant size, value, low-risk, and returns-based anomalies. While portfolio characteristics differ between sorting methods, we find that efficient sorting portfolios highly correlate with equally weighted portfolios and capture the same underlying anomaly.<br/

    Water temperature, mixing, and ice phenology in the arctic-alpine Lake DarfĂĄljĂĄvri (Lake Tarfala), northern Sweden

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    In the rapidly warming circumpolar Arctic, recent research of lakes has focused on their climatology and ecology but is challenged by sparsity of wintertime data. At the c. 48-m-deep and c. 0.5-km2 large proglacial Darfaljavri (Lake Tarfala), located in an arctic-alpine environment in the Scandinavian Mountains, year-round water temperatures were previously reported for 2016 to 2019. Here, this record is continued for 2019-2020 and 2021-2022, complemented by time-lapse imagery records of the state of the lake surface, as well as degree-day modeling of ice phenology (timing of ice-on and ice-off). Darfaljavri is cryostratified during winter, with interannual variations in the thermocline's thickness and temperature range. The ice season lasts from October to July. Modeled ice-on dates match observed ones reasonably well; however, observed ice-off dates occur much later than modeled ones, likely because of cold impact from Darfaljavri's glacial environment as inferred from a comparison with a close tundra lake. Though new insights into the complex lake mixing and ice phenology are provided, it remains to attribute the characteristics of Darfaljavri's winter stratification to additional potential drivers, such as lake ice thickness, atmospheric heat fluxes, and the water balance of the lake

    The influence of musical abilities on the processing of L2 focus prosody:An eye-tracking study

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    The perception of speech prosody in a second language (L2) remains challenging for proficient L2 users. Previous eye-tracking evidence indicates that Dutch listeners show difficulty in the processing of pitch accents signalling contrastive focus in English, whereas native English listeners use this cue in perception to anticipate upcoming information. We investigated whether musical abilities influenced the processing of contrastive focus accents by 40 Dutch adult L2 English users. In a visual-world eyetracking paradigm, participants listened to sentences with the focus particle only while viewing images of the objects and characters mentioned. We measured participants’ anticipatory fixations on the image showing the alternative of the contrast. Participants also completed a music perception test. Initial analyses indicate that individuals with higher musicperception scores show more anticipatory fixations in L2 listening. This suggests that having stronger perceptual resources underlying both music and speech perception may benefit the processing of L2 focus prosody

    Disparities in kidney transplantation accessibility among immigrant populations in Europe:A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background and objectives: Disparities in access to healthcare for patients with an immigration background are well-known. The aim of this study was to determine whether disparities among immigrant populations translate into a relative difference in the number of kidney transplants (KT) performed in documented immigrant patients (first and second generation) relative to native-born patients in Europe. Methods: A literature search was performed in PubMed from inception to 11-10-2022. Studies were eligible if: (1) written in English, (2) included immigrant and native-born KT patients, (3) performed in countries registered as Council of Europe members, (4) focused on documented first- and second-generation immigrant populations [1]. Systematic reviews, literature reviews, and case reports or articles about emigration, non-KT, and undocumented immigrants were excluded. The outcome measurement was a relative percentage of KTs to the total population per 100.000 residents. By dividing the immigrant percentages by the native-born resident percentages, the odds ratio (OR) was calculated in a meta-analysis. The risk of bias was assessed; articles with high risk of bias were excluded in a second meta-analysis. Results: Out of 109 articles, 5 were included (n = 24,614). One Italian study (n = 24,174) had a ratio below 1, being 0.910 (95%CI 0.877–0.945). The other four articles (n = 196, n = 283, n = 77, n = 119) had ratios above 1: 1.36 (95%CI 0.980–1.87), 2.04 (95%CI 1.56–2.68), 2.23 (95%CI 1.53–3.25) and 2.64 (95%CI 1.68–4.15). After performing a meta-analysis, the OR did not show a significant difference: 1.68 (95%CI 1.03–2.75). After bias correction, this remained unchanged: 1.78 (95%CI 0.961–3.31). Conclusions: In our meta-analysis we did not find a significant difference in the relative number of KTs performed in immigrant versus native-born populations in Europe. However, a lesser likelihood for immigrants to receive a pre-emptive kidney transplantation was found. Large heterogeneity between studies (e.g. different sample size, patient origins, study duration, adult vs children patients) was a shortcoming to our analysis. Nevertheless, our article is the first review in this understudied topic. As important questions (e.g. on ethnicity, living donor rate) remain, future studies are needed to address them.</p

    The influence of musical abilities on the processing of L2 focus prosody:An eye-tracking study

    No full text
    The perception of speech prosody in a second language (L2) remains challenging for proficient L2 users. Previous eye-tracking evidence indicates that Dutch listeners show difficulty in the processing of pitch accents signalling contrastive focus in English, whereas native English listeners use this cue in perception to anticipate upcoming information. We investigated whether musical abilities influenced the processing of contrastive focus accents by 40 Dutch adult L2 English users. In a visual-world eyetracking paradigm, participants listened to sentences with the focus particle only while viewing images of the objects and characters mentioned. We measured participants’ anticipatory fixations on the image showing the alternative of the contrast. Participants also completed a music perception test. Initial analyses indicate that individuals with higher musicperception scores show more anticipatory fixations in L2 listening. This suggests that having stronger perceptual resources underlying both music and speech perception may benefit the processing of L2 focus prosody
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