13,535 research outputs found

    Magnetic fields from low mass stars to brown dwarfs

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    Magnetic fields have been detected on stars across the H-R diagram and substellar objects either directly by their effect on the formation of spectral lines, or through the activity phenomena they power which can be observed across a large part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Stars show a very wide variety of magnetic properties in terms of strength, geometry or variability. Cool stars generate their magnetic fields by dynamo effect, and their properties appear to correlate - to some extent - with stellar parameters such as mass, rotation and age. With the improvements of instrumentation and data analysis techniques, magnetic fields can now be detected and studied down to the domain of very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, triggering new theoretical works aimed, in particular, at modelling dynamo action in these objects. After a brief discussion on the importance of magnetic field in stellar physics, the basics of dynamo theory and magnetic field measurements are presented. The main results stemming from observational and theoretical studies of magnetism are then detailed in two parts: the fully-convective transition, and the very-low mass stars and brown dwarfs domain.Comment: 30 pages, 9 figures. Notes for lectures presented at the Evry Schatzman school on "Low-mass stars and the transition from stars to brown dwarfs", September 2011, Roscoff, France. To appear in the EAS Conference Series, edited by C. Charbonnel, C. Reyle, M. Schulthei

    The evolution of surface magnetic fields in young solar-type stars

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    The surface rotation rates of young solar-type stars decrease rapidly with age from the end of the pre-main sequence though the early main sequence. This suggests that there is also an important change in the dynamos operating in these stars, which should be observable in their surface magnetic fields. Here we present early results in a study aimed at observing the evolution of these magnetic fields through this critical time period. We are observing stars in open clusters and stellar associations to provide precise ages, and using Zeeman Doppler Imaging to characterize the complex magnetic fields. Presented here are results for six stars, three in the in the beta Pic association (~10 Myr old) and three in the AB Dor association (~100 Myr old).Comment: To appear in the proceedings of IAU symposium 302: Magnetic fields throughout stellar evolution. 2 pages, 3 figure

    From solar-like to anti-solar differential rotation in cool stars

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    Stellar differential rotation can be separated into two main regimes: solar-like when the equator rotates faster than the poles and anti-solar when the polar regions rotate faster than the equator. We investigate the transition between these two regimes with 3-D numerical simulations of rotating spherical shells. We conduct a systematic parameter study which also includes models from different research groups. We find that the direction of the differential rotation is governed by the contribution of the Coriolis force in the force balance, independently of the model setup (presence of a magnetic field, thickness of the convective layer, density stratification). Rapidly-rotating cases with a small Rossby number yield solar-like differential rotation, while weakly-rotating models sustain anti-solar differential rotation. Close to the transition, the two kinds of differential rotation are two possible bistable states. This study provides theoretical support for the existence of anti-solar differential rotation in cool stars with large Rossby numbers.Comment: 5 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    The "Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars" (BinaMIcS) project

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    The "Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of stars" (BinaMIcS) project is based on two large programs of spectropolarimetric observations with ESPaDOnS at CFHT and Narval at TBL. Three samples of spectroscopic binaries with two spectra (SB2) are observed: known cool magnetic binaries, the few known hot magnetic binaries, and a survey sample of hot binaries to search for additional hot magnetic binaries. The goal of BinaMIcS is to understand the complex interplay between stellar magnetism and binarity. To this aim, we will characterise and model the magnetic fields, magnetospheric structure and coupling of both components of hot and cool close binary systems over a significant range of evolutionary stages, to confront current theories and trigger new ones. First results already provided interesting clues, e.g. about the origin of magnetism in hot stars.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, proceedings of the SF2A conferenc

    Measurement of the Higgs mass via the channel : e+e- -> ZH -> e+e- + X

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    In this communication, the mass declined for the decay channel, e+e- -> ZH -> e+e- + X, as measured by the ILD detector was studied. The Higgs mass is assumed to be 120 GeV and the center of mass energy is 250 GeV. For an integrated luminosity of 250 fb-1, the accuracy of the reconstruction and the good knowledge of the initial state allow for the measurement of the Higgs boson mass with a precision of about 100 MeV.Comment: 7 pages, 14 figures, LCWS/ILC 2010 (International Linear Collider Workshop 2010 LCWS10 and ILC10

    A homomorphism between link and XXZ modules over the periodic Temperley-Lieb algebra

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    We study finite loop models on a lattice wrapped around a cylinder. A section of the cylinder has N sites. We use a family of link modules over the periodic Temperley-Lieb algebra EPTL_N(\beta, \alpha) introduced by Martin and Saleur, and Graham and Lehrer. These are labeled by the numbers of sites N and of defects d, and extend the standard modules of the original Temperley-Lieb algebra. Beside the defining parameters \beta=u^2+u^{-2} with u=e^{i\lambda/2} (weight of contractible loops) and \alpha (weight of non-contractible loops), this family also depends on a twist parameter v that keeps track of how the defects wind around the cylinder. The transfer matrix T_N(\lambda, \nu) depends on the anisotropy \nu and the spectral parameter \lambda that fixes the model. (The thermodynamic limit of T_N is believed to describe a conformal field theory of central charge c=1-6\lambda^2/(\pi(\lambda-\pi)).) The family of periodic XXZ Hamiltonians is extended to depend on this new parameter v and the relationship between this family and the loop models is established. The Gram determinant for the natural bilinear form on these link modules is shown to factorize in terms of an intertwiner i_N^d between these link representations and the eigenspaces of S^z of the XXZ models. This map is shown to be an isomorphism for generic values of u and v and the critical curves in the plane of these parameters for which i_N^d fails to be an isomorphism are given.Comment: Replacement of "The Gram matrix as a connection between periodic loop models and XXZ Hamiltonians", 31 page
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