431 research outputs found

    The Lambda Variant in Argentina: Analyzing the Evolution and Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Lineage C.37

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    The second wave of COVID-19 occurred in South America in early 2021 and was mainly driven by Gamma and Lambda variants. In this study, we aimed to describe the emergence and local genomic diversity of the SARS-CoV-2 Lambda variant in Argentina, from its initial entry into the country until its detection ceased. Molecular surveillance was conducted on 9356 samples from Argentina between October 2020 and April 2022, and sequencing, phylogenetic, and phylogeographic analyses were performed. Our findings revealed that the Lambda variant was first detected in Argentina in January 2021 and steadily increased in frequency until it peaked in April 2021, with continued detection throughout the year. Phylodynamic analyses showed that at least 18 introductions of the Lambda variant into the country occurred, with nine of them having evidence of onward local transmission. The spatial‚Äď-temporal reconstruction showed that Argentine clades were associated with Lambda sequences from Latin America and suggested an initial diversification in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires before spreading to other regions in Argentina. Genetic analyses of genome sequences allowed us to describe the mutational patterns of the Argentine Lambda sequences and detect the emergence of rare mutations in an immunocompromised patient. Our study highlights the importance of genomic surveillance in identifying the introduction and geographical distribution of the SARS-CoV-2 Lambda variant, as well as in monitoring the emergence of mutations that could be involved in the evolutionary leaps that characterize variants of concern

    Chasing Gravitational Waves with the Chereknov Telescope Array

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    Presented at the 38th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2023), 2023 (arXiv:2309.08219)2310.07413International audienceThe detection of gravitational waves from a binary neutron star merger by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (GW170817), along with the discovery of the electromagnetic counterparts of this gravitational wave event, ushered in a new era of multimessenger astronomy, providing the first direct evidence that BNS mergers are progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Such events may also produce very-high-energy (VHE, > 100GeV) photons which have yet to be detected in coincidence with a gravitational wave signal. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a next-generation VHE observatory which aims to be indispensable in this search, with an unparalleled sensitivity and ability to slew anywhere on the sky within a few tens of seconds. New observing modes and follow-up strategies are being developed for CTA to rapidly cover localization areas of gravitational wave events that are typically larger than the CTA field of view. This work will evaluate and provide estimations on the expected number of of gravitational wave events that will be observable with CTA, considering both on- and off-axis emission. In addition, we will present and discuss the prospects of potential follow-up strategies with CTA

    Virology under the microscope‚ÄĒa call for rational discourse

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    Viruses have brought humanity many challenges: respiratory infection, cancer, neurological impairment and immunosuppression to name a few. Virology research over the last 60+ years has responded to reduce this disease burden with vaccines and antivirals. Despite this long history, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented attention to the field of virology. Some of this attention is focused on concern about the safe conduct of research with human pathogens. A small but vocal group of individuals has seized upon these concerns ‚Äď conflating legitimate questions about safely conducting virus-related research with uncertainties over the origins of SARS-CoV-2. The result has fueled public confusion and, in many instances, ill-informed condemnation of virology. With this article, we seek to promote a return to rational discourse. We explain the use of gain-of-function approaches in science, discuss the possible origins of SARS-CoV-2 and outline current regulatory structures that provide oversight for virological research in the United States. By offering our expertise, we ‚Äď a broad group of working virologists ‚Äď seek to aid policy makers in navigating these controversial issues. Balanced, evidence-based discourse is essential to addressing public concern while maintaining and expanding much-needed research in virology

    Exploring the cost-effectiveness of high versus low perioperative fraction of inspired oxygen in the prevention of surgical site infections among abdominal surgery patients in three low- and middle-income countries

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    Background: This study assessed the potential cost-effectiveness of high (80‚Äď100%) vs low (21‚Äď35%) fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) at preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) after abdominal surgery in Nigeria, India, and South Africa. Methods: Decision-analytic models were constructed using best available evidence sourced from unbundled data of an ongoing pilot trial assessing the effectiveness of high FiO2, published literature, and a cost survey in Nigeria, India, and South Africa. Effectiveness was measured as percentage of SSIs at 30 days after surgery, a healthcare perspective was adopted, and costs were reported in US dollars ().Results:HighFiO2maybecost‚ąíeffective(cheaperandeffective).InNigeria,theaveragecostforhighFiO2was). Results: High FiO2 may be cost-effective (cheaper and effective). In Nigeria, the average cost for high FiO2 was 216 compared with 222forlowFiO2leadingtoa¬†‚ąí222 for low FiO2 leading to a¬†‚ąí6 (95% confidence interval [CI]:¬†‚ąí13to¬†‚ąí13 to¬†‚ąí1) difference in costs. In India, the average cost for high FiO2 was 184comparedwith184 compared with 195 for low FiO2 leading to a¬†‚ąí11(9511 (95% CI:¬†‚ąí15 to¬†‚ąí6)differenceincosts.InSouthAfrica,theaveragecostforhighFiO2was6) difference in costs. In South Africa, the average cost for high FiO2 was 1164 compared with 1257forlowFiO2leadingtoa¬†‚ąí1257 for low FiO2 leading to a¬†‚ąí93 (95% CI:¬†‚ąí132to¬†‚ąí132 to¬†‚ąí65) difference in costs. The high FiO2 arm had few SSIs, 7.33% compared with 8.38% for low FiO2, leading to a¬†‚ąí1.05 (95% CI:¬†‚ąí1.14 to¬†‚ąí0.90) percentage point reduction in SSIs. Conclusion: High FiO2 could be cost-effective at preventing SSIs in the three countries but further data from large clinical trials are required to confirm this

    Chasing Gravitational Waves with the Chereknov Telescope Array

    No full text
    Presented at the 38th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2023), 2023 (arXiv:2309.08219)2310.07413International audienceThe detection of gravitational waves from a binary neutron star merger by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (GW170817), along with the discovery of the electromagnetic counterparts of this gravitational wave event, ushered in a new era of multimessenger astronomy, providing the first direct evidence that BNS mergers are progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Such events may also produce very-high-energy (VHE, > 100GeV) photons which have yet to be detected in coincidence with a gravitational wave signal. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a next-generation VHE observatory which aims to be indispensable in this search, with an unparalleled sensitivity and ability to slew anywhere on the sky within a few tens of seconds. New observing modes and follow-up strategies are being developed for CTA to rapidly cover localization areas of gravitational wave events that are typically larger than the CTA field of view. This work will evaluate and provide estimations on the expected number of of gravitational wave events that will be observable with CTA, considering both on- and off-axis emission. In addition, we will present and discuss the prospects of potential follow-up strategies with CTA

    Core Cariology Curriculum Framework in Spanish for Latin American dental schools: development and consensus

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    Abstract The aim of this study was to develop and achieve consensus on a cariology teaching framework for dental schools in Latin American Spanish-speaking countries. The Delphi process, with a ‚Č•8 0% pre-defined participants‚Äô agreement, included three phases and a Coordinating Group. During the Preparation phase three panels of experts were selected and invited to participate: a) Regional academic/professional Dental Associations (Associations-Panel): n = 12; b) Regional Dental Schools (Dental-Schools-Panel): existing dental schools (n = 263) from the 19 Spanish-speaking regional countries; c) International academic/professional associations Peer Experts (Peer-Panel): n = 4. Based on consensus documents from Europe, Colombia, the Caribbean, USA, Chile and Spain, and updated scientific evidence, the Coordinating Group developed a baseline framework proposal of domains, main competencies (MC) and specific competencies (SC). The Consultation-Agreement and Consensus phases included three rounds of questionnaires with a step-wise sharing of the MC updated version of the consensus framework with the Dental-Schools-Panel and including SC with the Associations-Panel. Diverse communication strategies were used ( e.g ., independent google-form questionnaires and workshops). Consensus was reached after an on-site Associations-Panel workshop and secret voting, followed by an online meeting with the Peers-Panel. A total of 127 academic/professional institutions participated (Associations-Panel: 11, 91.6%; Dental-Schools-Panel: 112, 42.6%, all countries; Peers-Panel: 4, 100%). The baseline Cariology teaching framework of 5 domains, 10 MC and 92 SC underwent modifications after agreements for a final consensus framework consisting of 5 domains, 10 MC and 85 SC. A Core Cariology curriculum framework in Spanish for Latin American Dental Schools was successfully developed and agreed upon with regional dental academic and professional institutions

    Tecnologías ganaderas en rodeos de cría del este del Chaco, Argentina

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    Es cada vez mayor el inter√©s por mejorar los par√°metros productivos de la ganader√≠a bovina, para lo que resulta imprescindible identificar los problemas que dificultan la adopci√≥n de las tecnolog√≠as que permiten incrementar su productividad. Esta publicaci√≥n contiene la informaci√≥n relevada, sistematizada y analizada proveniente de encuestas realizadas a productores en el √°rea de influencia de la EEA Colonia Ben√≠tez de INTA, ubicada en el este de la provincia del Chaco. El relevamiento se realiz√≥ de forma simult√°nea en las Agencias de Extensi√≥n Rural de Las Palmas, Basail, Makall√© y en la Oficina de Colonia Ben√≠tez con la participaci√≥n de distintos estratos de productores. Se evaluaron tecnolog√≠as relacionadas al manejo del rodeo, reproducci√≥n, sanidad, nutrici√≥n, bienestar animal, as√≠ como la gesti√≥n integral de la empresa ganadera. Los resultados logrados se presentan de manera ordenada definiendo las tecnolog√≠as consultadas, los valores obtenidos en cada estrato de productores, junto a relatos breves en primera persona del ‚Äúconocimiento y uso‚ÄĚ de las tecnolog√≠as analizadas. La informaci√≥n resulta de utilidad para construir propuestas de intervenci√≥n teniendo en cuenta.EEA Colonia Ben√≠tezFil: Verdoljak, Juan Jose. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez; ArgentinaFil: Gomez, Viviana Daniela. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez; ArgentinaFil: Rossner, Maria Victoria. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez; ArgentinaFil: Pellerano, Liliana Laura. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Ben√≠tez; ArgentinaFil: Famin, Lucia. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez. Agencia de Extensi√≥n Rural Las Palmas; ArgentinaFil: Vagabculov, Javier. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez; ArgentinaFil: Monteros, Diego Ezequiel. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez; ArgentinaFil: Lestani Sablich, Mariano. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Ben√≠tez. Agencia de Extensi√≥n Rural Makall√©; ArgentinaFil: Geijo, Angel Ruben. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez. Agencia de Extensi√≥n Rural Basail; ArgentinaFil: Fernandez, Abel Leopoldo. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez. Agencia de Extensi√≥n Rural Las Palmas; ArgentinaFil: Pamies, Marcelo Eduardo. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Ben√≠tez; ArgentinaFil: Monicault, Luis Ademar. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez; ArgentinaFil: Davalos, Carlos. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez. Agencia de Extensi√≥n Rural Basail; ArgentinaFil: Saez, Roberto Alonso. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez; ArgentinaFil: Vagabculow, Jorge Leandro. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez. Agencia de Extensi√≥n Rural Las Palmas; ArgentinaFil: Di Lorenzo, Elio Luis. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benitez; ArgentinaFil: Rosello Brajovich, Jos√© Emilio. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria (INTA). Estaci√≥n Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Ben√≠tez; Argentin

    Chasing Gravitational Waves with the Chereknov Telescope Array