130 research outputs found

    ENST 411: Merrill W. Linn Conservancy - Dale’s Ridge

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    Collaborative community-based project working on developing an ecological management and trail maintenance plan alongside updating the trail brochure for the Dale’s Ridge property managed by the Merrill W. Linn Conservancy in East Buffalo Township, Pennsylvania. This is a collaborative project between the Conservancy & the ENST 411 culminating experience course

    The Science Performance of JWST as Characterized in Commissioning

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    This paper characterizes the actual science performance of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as determined from the six month commissioning period. We summarize the performance of the spacecraft, telescope, science instruments, and ground system, with an emphasis on differences from pre-launch expectations. Commissioning has made clear that JWST is fully capable of achieving the discoveries for which it was built. Moreover, almost across the board, the science performance of JWST is better than expected; in most cases, JWST will go deeper faster than expected. The telescope and instrument suite have demonstrated the sensitivity, stability, image quality, and spectral range that are necessary to transform our understanding of the cosmos through observations spanning from near-earth asteroids to the most distant galaxies.Comment: 5th version as accepted to PASP; 31 pages, 18 figures; https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1538-3873/acb29

    The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

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    Twenty-six years ago a small committee report, building on earlier studies, expounded a compelling and poetic vision for the future of astronomy, calling for an infrared-optimized space telescope with an aperture of at least 4m4m. With the support of their governments in the US, Europe, and Canada, 20,000 people realized that vision as the 6.5m6.5m James Webb Space Telescope. A generation of astronomers will celebrate their accomplishments for the life of the mission, potentially as long as 20 years, and beyond. This report and the scientific discoveries that follow are extended thank-you notes to the 20,000 team members. The telescope is working perfectly, with much better image quality than expected. In this and accompanying papers, we give a brief history, describe the observatory, outline its objectives and current observing program, and discuss the inventions and people who made it possible. We cite detailed reports on the design and the measured performance on orbit.Comment: Accepted by PASP for the special issue on The James Webb Space Telescope Overview, 29 pages, 4 figure

    The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

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    Twenty-six years ago a small committee report, building on earlier studies, expounded a compelling and poetic vision for the future of astronomy, calling for an infrared-optimized space telescope with an aperture of at least 4 m. With the support of their governments in the US, Europe, and Canada, 20,000 people realized that vision as the 6.5 m James Webb Space Telescope. A generation of astronomers will celebrate their accomplishments for the life of the mission, potentially as long as 20 yr, and beyond. This report and the scientific discoveries that follow are extended thank-you notes to the 20,000 team members. The telescope is working perfectly, with much better image quality than expected. In this and accompanying papers, we give a brief history, describe the observatory, outline its objectives and current observing program, and discuss the inventions and people who made it possible. We cite detailed reports on the design and the measured performance on orbit

    Deep Learning to Refine the Identification of High-Quality Clinical Research Articles from the Biomedical Literature: Performance Evaluation

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    Background Identifying practice-ready evidence-based journal articles in medicine is a challenge due to the sheer volume of biomedical research publications. Newer approaches to support evidence discovery apply deep learning techniques to improve the efficiency and accuracy of classifying sound evidence. Objective To determine how well deep learning models using variants of Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) identify high-quality evidence with high clinical relevance from the biomedical literature for consideration in clinical practice. Methods We fine-tuned variations of BERT models (BERTBASE, BioBERT, BlueBERT, and PubMedBERT) and compared their performance in classifying articles based on methodological quality criteria. The dataset used for fine-tuning models included titles and abstracts of >160,000 PubMed records from 2012-2020 that were of interest to human health which had been manually labeled based on meeting established critical appraisal criteria for methodological rigor. The data was randomly divided into 80:10:10 sets for training, validating, and testing. In addition to using the full unbalanced set, the training data was randomly undersampled into four balanced datasets to assess performance and select the best performing model. For each of the four sets, one model that maintained sensitivity (recall) at ‚Č•99% was selected and were ensembled. The best performing model was evaluated in a prospective, blinded test and applied to an established reference standard, the Clinical Hedges dataset. Results In training, three of the four selected best performing models were trained using BioBERTBASE. The ensembled model did not boost performance compared with the best individual model. Hence a solo BioBERT-based model (named DL-PLUS) was selected for further testing as it was computationally more efficient. The model had high recall (>99%) and 60% to 77% specificity in a prospective evaluation conducted with blinded research associates and saved >60% of the work required to identify high quality articles. Conclusions Deep learning using pretrained language models and a large dataset of classified articles produced models with improved specificity while maintaining >99% recall. The resulting DL-PLUS model identifies high-quality, clinically relevant articles from PubMed at the time of publication. The model improves the efficiency of a literature surveillance program, which allows for faster dissemination of appraised research

    The Science Performance of JWST as Characterized in Commissioning

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    This paper characterizes the actual science performance of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as determined from the six month commissioning period. We summarize the performance of the spacecraft, telescope, science instruments, and ground system, with an emphasis on differences from pre-launch expectations. Commissioning has made clear that JWST is fully capable of achieving the discoveries for which it was built. Moreover, almost across the board, the science performance of JWST is better than expected; in most cases, JWST will go deeper faster than expected. The telescope and instrument suite have demonstrated the sensitivity, stability, image quality, and spectral range that are necessary to transform our understanding of the cosmos through observations spanning from near-earth asteroids to the most distant galaxies

    Differential gene expression in peripheral leukocytes of pre-weaned Holstein heifer calves with respiratory disease.

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    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a leading cause of calf morbidity and mortality, and prevalence remains high despite current management practices. Differential gene expression (DGE) provides detailed insight into individual immune responses and can illuminate enriched pathways and biomarkers that contribute to disease susceptibility and outcomes. The aims of this study were to investigate differences in peripheral leukocyte gene expression in Holstein preweaned heifer calves 1) with and without BRD, and 2) across weeks of age. Calves were enrolled for this short-term longitudinal study on two commercial dairies in Washington State. Calves were assessed every two weeks throughout the pre-weaning period using clinical respiratory scoring (CRS) and thoracic ultrasonography (TUS), and blood samples were collected. Calves were selected that were either healthy (n = 10) or had BRD diagnosed by CRS (n = 7), TUS (n = 6), or both (n = 6) in weeks 5 or 7 of life). Three consecutive time point samples were analyzed for each BRD calf consisting of PRE, ONSET, and POST samples. Nineteen genes of interest were selected based on previous gene expression studies in cattle: ALOX15, BPI, CATHL6, CXCL8, DHX58, GZMB, HPGD, IFNG, IL17D, IL1R2, ISG15, LCN2, LIF, MX1, OAS2, PGLYRP1, S100A8, SELP, and TNF. Comparisons were made between age and disease time point matched BRD and healthy calves as well as between calf weeks of age. No DGE was observed between diseased and healthy calves; however, DGE was observed between calf weeks of age regardless of disease state. Developmental differences in leukocyte gene expression, phenotype, and functionality make pre-weaned calves immunologically distinct from mature cattle, and early life shifts in calf leukocyte populations likely contribute to the age-related gene expression differences we observed. Age overshadows disease impacts to influence gene expression in young calves, and immune development progresses upon a common trajectory regardless of disease during the preweaning period

    Observation of WWWWWW Production in pppp Collisions at s\sqrt s =13‚ÄČ‚ÄČTeV with the ATLAS Detector