34 research outputs found

    Absence of relationships between depression and anxiety and bone mineral density in patients hospitalized for severe anorexia nervosa

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    International audienceIntroduction: Low BMD is frequent in anorexia nervosa (AN), depression, and during SSRI treatment but relation between these elements in AN is not established. The aims of this study were to assess the relationships between depression and anxiety, SSRI prescription, and (1) low BMD during inpatient treatment and (2) BMD change 1 year after hospital discharge. Methods: From 2009 to 2011, 212 women with severe AN have been included in the EVHAN study (EValuation of Hospitalisation for AN). Depression, anxiety and obsessive–compulsive symptoms and comorbidity were evaluated using psychometric scales and CIDI-SF. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: According to the CIDI-SF, 56% of participants (n = 70) had a lifetime major depressive disorder, 27.2% (n = 34) had a lifetime obsessive–compulsive disorder, 32.8% (n = 41) had a lifetime generalized anxiety disorder and 25.6% (n = 32) had a lifetime social phobia disorder. Half of the sample (50.7%; n = 72) had a low BMD (Z score ≤ − 2). In multivariate analysis, lifetime lowest BMI was the only determinant significantly associated with low BMD (OR = 0.56, p = 0.0008) during hospitalization. A long duration of AN (OR = 1.40 (0.003–3.92), p = 0.03), the AN-R subtype (OR = 4.95 (1.11–26.82), p = 0.04), an increase of BMI between the admission and 1 year (OR = 1.69 (1.21–2.60), p = 0.005) and a gain of BMD 1 year after the discharge explained BMD change. Conclusion: We did not find any association between depression and anxiety or SSRI treatment and a low BMD or variation of BMD. Level of evidence: Level III, cohort study

    EJNMMI Res

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    Inflammatory vascular disease of the arteries, such as inflamed atheromatous plaques or arteritis, may cause aneurysms or ischemic strokes. In this context, using positron emission tomography (PET) to image inflammation may help select patients who would benefit from appropriate therapeutic interventions. This study sought to assess the usefulness of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) tracers [C]-PBR28 and [F]-PBR06 for imaging inflammatory vascular disease in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemistry for macrophage infiltration as well as autoradiography with [F]-PBR06 were performed on eight paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed atherosclerosis plaques prospectively collected after carotid endarterectomy of eight patients affected by ischemic stroke. Six different patients, one of whom was also included in the in vitro study, underwent PET imaging. Two patients with carotid stenosis associated with ischemic stroke were imaged with [F]-PBR06 PET/CT, and four other patients (three with large vessel vasculitis and one with bilateral carotid stenosis but without stroke) were imaged with [C]-PBR28. All in vitro sections showed specific binding of [F]-PBR06, which co-localized with immunohistochemistry markers for inflammation. However, in vivo TSPO imaging with either [C]-PBR28 or [F]-PBR06 was negative in all participants. Despite good uptake on surgical samples in vitro, [C]-PBR28 and [F]-PBR06 are not viable clinical tools for imaging inflammatory vascular disease. NCT02513589, registered 31 July 2015 and NCT00547976, registered 23 October 2007. https://clinicaltrials.gov

    Comparison of the binding of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) antagonist 68Ga-RM2 and 18F-FDG in breast cancer samples.

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    The Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor (GRPR) is over-expressed in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast tumors and related metastatic lymph nodes offering the opportunity of imaging and therapy of luminal tumors. 68Ga-RM2 binding and 18F-FDG binding in tumoral zones were measured and compared using tissue micro-imaging with a beta imager on 14 breast cancer samples (10 primaries and 4 associated metastatic lymph nodes). Results were then assessed against ER expression, progesterone receptor (PR) expression, HER2 over-expression or not and Ki-67 expression. GRPR immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also performed on all samples. We also retrospectively compared 68Ga-RM2 and 18F-FDG bindings to 18F-FDG SUVmax on the pre-therapeutic PET/CT examination, if available. 68Ga-RM2 binding was significantly higher in tumors expressing GRPR on IHC than in GRPR-negative tumors (P = 0.022). In ER+ tumors, binding of 68Ga-RM2 was significantly higher than 18F-FDG (P = 0.015). In tumors with low Ki-67, 68Ga-RM2 binding was also significantly increased compared to 18F-FDG (P = 0.029). Overall, the binding of 68Ga-RM2 and 18F-FDG displayed an opposite pattern in tumor samples and 68Ga-RM2 binding was significantly higher in tumors that had low 18F-FDG binding (P = 0.021). This inverse correlation was also documented in the few patients in whom a 18F-FDG PET/CT examination before surgery was available. Findings from this in vitro study suggest that GRPR targeting can be an alternative to 18F-FDG imaging in ER+ breast tumors. Moreover, because GRPR antagonists can also be labeled with lutetium-177 this opens new avenues for targeted radionuclide therapy in the subset of patients with progressive metastatic disease following conventional treatments

    Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Myelin Regeneration in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

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    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) display potent immunomodulatory and regenerative capabilities through the secretion of bioactive factors, such as proteins, cytokines, chemokines as well as the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs). These functional properties of MSCs make them ideal candidates for the treatment of degenerative and inflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a heterogenous disease that is typically characterized by inflammation, demyelination, gliosis and axonal loss. In the current study, an induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) murine model of MS was utilized. At peak disease onset, animals were treated with saline, placenta-derived MSCs (PMSCs), as well as low and high doses of PMSC-EVs. Animals treated with PMSCs and high-dose PMSC-EVs displayed improved motor function outcomes as compared to animals treated with saline. Symptom improvement by PMSCs and PMSC-EVs led to reduced DNA damage in oligodendroglia populations and increased myelination within the spinal cord of treated mice. In vitro data demonstrate that PMSC-EVs promote myelin regeneration by inducing endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells to differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. These findings support that PMSCs’ mechanism of action is mediated by the secretion of EVs. Therefore, PMSC-derived EVs are a feasible alternative to cellular based therapies for MS, as demonstrated in an animal model of the disease

    Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Myelin Regeneration in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

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    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) display potent immunomodulatory and regenerative capabilities through the secretion of bioactive factors, such as proteins, cytokines, chemokines as well as the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs). These functional properties of MSCs make them ideal candidates for the treatment of degenerative and inflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a heterogenous disease that is typically characterized by inflammation, demyelination, gliosis and axonal loss. In the current study, an induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) murine model of MS was utilized. At peak disease onset, animals were treated with saline, placenta-derived MSCs (PMSCs), as well as low and high doses of PMSC-EVs. Animals treated with PMSCs and high-dose PMSC-EVs displayed improved motor function outcomes as compared to animals treated with saline. Symptom improvement by PMSCs and PMSC-EVs led to reduced DNA damage in oligodendroglia populations and increased myelination within the spinal cord of treated mice. In vitro data demonstrate that PMSC-EVs promote myelin regeneration by inducing endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cells to differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. These findings support that PMSCs' mechanism of action is mediated by the secretion of EVs. Therefore, PMSC-derived EVs are a feasible alternative to cellular based therapies for MS, as demonstrated in an animal model of the disease

    Diabetes and insulin injection modalities: Effects on hepatic expression and activity of 11b-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase type 1 in juvenile diabetic rats

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    PosterDiabetes and insulin injection modalities: Effects on hepatic expression and activity of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in juvenile diabetic rats. 55. Annual ESP

    Food and environmental parasitology in Canada:A network for the facilitation of collaborative research

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    Parasitic diseases are of considerable public health significance in Canada, particularly in rural and remote areas. Food- and water-borne parasites contribute significantly to the overall number of parasitic infections reported in Canada. While data on the incidence of some of these diseases are available, knowledge of the true burden of infection by the causative agents in Canadians is somewhat limited. A number of centers of expertise in Canada study various aspects of parasitology, but few formal societies or networks of parasitologists currently exist in Canada, and previously none focused specifically on food or environmental transmission. The recently established Food and Environmental Parasitology Network (FEPN) brings together Canadian researchers, regulators and public health officials with an active involvement in issues related to these increasingly important fields. The major objectives of the Network include identifying research gaps, facilitating discussion and collaborative research, developing standardized methods, generating data for risk assessments, policies, and guidelines, and providing expert advice and testing in support of outbreak investigations and surveillance studies. Issues considered by the FEPN include contaminated foods and infected food animals, potable and non-potable water, Northern and Aboriginal issues, zoonotic transmission, and epidemiology

    Body composition in 98 patients awaiting kidney transplantation.

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    International audienceRecent data suggest that the nutritional status of patients who are on the waiting list for kidney transplantation, influence outcomes after renal transplantation. Body composition (BC) analysis is rarely included in pretransplant evaluation. The aim of this study was to determine how alteration of the BC of these patients could influence pretransplant and post-transplant care. We compared the BC of French patients on a waiting list for kidney transplantation to a sex- and age-matched healthy, European control population. Patients were included when listed for kidney grafting in a prospective longitudinal study (CORPOS). Biological nutritional parameters, fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were assessed on the day of wait-list registration. FFM and FM index (FFMi - FMi) are the ratio of FFM and FM to height squared. Results are expressed as median (range). These indexes were compared with previous study values used as a normal range in nutritional assessment and clinical practice. The study included 28 women and 70 men aged 25.3 to 65.9 y. Body mass index ranged from 16.8 kg/m² to 39.4 kg/m². Compared with controls, FMi was higher in women (10.6 kg/m² [3.7-18.6 kg/m²]) than in men (8.1 kg/m² [3.5-13.3 kg/m²] in M) and FFMi was lower in women (14.3 kg/m² [11.8-21.4 kg/m²]) than in men (17.9 kg/m² [13.9-24.2 kg/m²]) (P < 0.01), reflecting an abnormal distribution of body compartments. All biological parameters were within the normal range. BC abnormalities, which can only be detected with the use of DXA, are present in patients on a kidney transplantation waiting list. Detection of these abnormalities could influence the post-transplantation survey in order to prevent the frequent risk for developing metabolic complications after the procedure

    RELEVANCE OF BIO IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE ESTIMATION OF BODY COMPOSITION IN DIALYSED AND KIDNEY TRANSPLANTED PATIENTS

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    Bio impedance spectroscopy (BIS) is widely used in pathological situations to measure body composition. However, the results of BIS validation with reference methods are still contradictory, especially in medical situations where hydratation status is compromised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of BIS to estimate fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) in dialysed patients using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference compared to the results obtained in the same patients two years after successful kidney transplantation. When listed for a kidney grafting, 39 patients who consent were included in a longitudinal study of evaluation of body composition (CORPOS). FFM and FM were estimated by DXA and by BIS (Imp SFB7 Impedimed Pty Ltd. Queensland, Australia), both performed successively the same day. These measurements were repeated in the same patients 24 months after renal transplantation. DXA and BIS measures of FFM and FM were highly correlated in dialyzed patients (DP) (respectively r=0.909 p<0.001 and r=0.831 p<0.001) and kidney transplant recipients (KTR) (respectively r=0.934 p<0.001 and r=0.770 p<0.001). The mean difference between DXA and BIS (Bland-Altman analysis) for FFM estimation was smaller in KTR (-0.3 +/- 4.9 vs 3.2 +/- 4.5 in DP), whereas difference did not reach significance for FM. Differences between upper and lower limits are important in all groups: -5 to 15.5kg for FFM in DP; -10.2 to 8.8kg for FFM in KTR; -11.6 to 6.8kg for FM in DP and -9 to 14.9kg for FM in KTR. Despite this individual variability, the whole body composition evolution after kidney transplantation is approached the same way by both methods. DXA and BIS measurements were highly correlated in both DP and KTR. However, the large individual differences demonstrated that single values of FFM or FM may be interpreted carefully but BIS as DXA has ability to evaluate changes in body composition over time in longitudinal studies
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