10,254 research outputs found

    Stability Walls in Heterotic Theories

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    We study the sub-structure of the heterotic Kahler moduli space due to the presence of non-Abelian internal gauge fields from the perspective of the four-dimensional effective theory. Internal gauge fields can be supersymmetric in some regions of the Kahler moduli space but break supersymmetry in others. In the context of the four-dimensional theory, we investigate what happens when the Kahler moduli are changed from the supersymmetric to the non-supersymmetric region. Our results provide a low-energy description of supersymmetry breaking by internal gauge fields as well as a physical picture for the mathematical notion of bundle stability. Specifically, we find that at the transition between the two regions an additional anomalous U(1) symmetry appears under which some of the states in the low-energy theory acquire charges. We compute the associated D-term contribution to the four-dimensional potential which contains a Kahler-moduli dependent Fayet-Iliopoulos term and contributions from the charged states. We show that this D-term correctly reproduces the expected physics. Several mathematical conclusions concerning vector bundle stability are drawn from our arguments. We also discuss possible physical applications of our results to heterotic model building and moduli stabilization.Comment: 37 pages, 4 figure

    Yukawa Textures From Heterotic Stability Walls

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    A holomorphic vector bundle on a Calabi-Yau threefold, X, with h^{1,1}(X)>1 can have regions of its Kahler cone where it is slope-stable, that is, where the four-dimensional theory is N=1 supersymmetric, bounded by "walls of stability". On these walls the bundle becomes poly-stable, decomposing into a direct sum, and the low energy gauge group is enhanced by at least one anomalous U(1) gauge factor. In this paper, we show that these additional symmetries can strongly constrain the superpotential in the stable region, leading to non-trivial textures of Yukawa interactions and restrictions on allowed masses for vector-like pairs of matter multiplets. The Yukawa textures exhibit a hierarchy; large couplings arise on the stability wall and some suppressed interactions "grow back" off the wall, where the extended U(1) symmetries are spontaneously broken. A number of explicit examples are presented involving both one and two stability walls, with different decompositions of the bundle structure group. A three family standard-like model with no vector-like pairs is given as an example of a class of SU(4) bundles that has a naturally heavy third quark/lepton family. Finally, we present the complete set of Yukawa textures that can arise for any holomorphic bundle with one stability wall where the structure group breaks into two factors.Comment: 53 pages, 4 figures and 13 table

    Stabilizing the Complex Structure in Heterotic Calabi-Yau Vacua

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    In this paper, we show that the presence of gauge fields in heterotic Calabi-Yau compacitifications causes the stabilisation of some, or all, of the complex structure moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold while maintaining a Minkowski vacuum. Certain deformations of the Calabi-Yau complex structure, with all other moduli held fixed, can lead to the gauge bundle becoming non-holomorphic and, hence, non-supersymmetric. This leads to an F-term potential which stabilizes the corresponding complex structure moduli. We use 10- and 4-dimensional field theory arguments as well as a derivation based purely on algebraic geometry to show that this picture is indeed correct. An explicit example is presented in which a large subset of complex structure moduli is fixed. We demonstrate that this type of theory can serve as the hidden sector in heterotic vacua and can co-exist with realistic particle physics.Comment: 17 pages, Late

    Fluid-Induced Propulsion of Rigid Particles in Wormlike Micellar Solutions

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    In the absence of inertia, a reciprocal swimmer achieves no net motion in a viscous Newtonian fluid. Here, we investigate the ability of a reciprocally actuated particle to translate through a complex fluid that possesses a network using tracking methods and birefringence imaging. A geometrically polar particle, a rod with a bead on one end, is reciprocally rotated using magnetic fields. The particle is immersed in a wormlike micellar (WLM) solution that is known to be susceptible to the formation of shear bands and other localized structures due to shear-induced remodeling of its microstructure. Results show that the nonlinearities present in this WLM solution break time-reversal symmetry under certain conditions, and enable propulsion of an artificial "swimmer." We find three regimes dependent on the Deborah number (De): net motion towards the bead-end of the particle at low De, net motion towards the rod-end of the particle at intermediate De, and no appreciable propulsion at high De. At low De, where the particle time-scale is longer then the fluid relaxation time, we believe that propulsion is caused by an imbalance in the fluid first normal stress differences between the two ends of the particle (bead and rod). At De~1, however, we observe the emergence of a region of network anisotropy near the rod using birefringence imaging. This anisotropy suggests alignment of the micellar network, which is "locked in" due to the shorter time-scale of the particle relative to the fluid

    Heterotic Line Bundle Standard Models

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    In a previous publication, arXiv:1106.4804, we have found 200 models from heterotic Calabi-Yau compactifications with line bundles, which lead to standard models after taking appropriate quotients by a discrete symmetry and introducing Wilson lines. In this paper, we construct the resulting standard models explicitly, compute their spectrum including Higgs multiplets, and analyze some of their basic properties. After removing redundancies we find about 400 downstairs models, each with the precise matter spectrum of the supersymmetric standard model, with one, two or three pairs of Higgs doublets and no exotics of any kind. In addition to the standard model gauge group, up to four Green-Schwarz anomalous U(1) symmetries are present in these models, which constrain the allowed operators in the four-dimensional effective supergravity. The vector bosons associated to these anomalous U(1) symmetries are massive. We explicitly compute the spectrum of allowed operators for each model and present the results, together with the defining data of the models, in a database of standard models accessible at http://www-thphys.physics.ox.ac.uk/projects/CalabiYau/linebundlemodels/index.html. Based on these results we analyze elementary phenomenological properties. For example, for about 200 models all dimension four and five proton decay violating operators are forbidden by the additional U(1) symmetries.Comment: 55 pages, Latex, 3 pdf figure

    Aerosol physical properties in the stratosphere (APPS) radiometer design

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    The measurement concepts and radiometer design developed to obtain earth-limb spectral radiance measurements for the Aerosol Physical Properties in the Stratosphere (APPS) measurement program are presented. The measurements made by a radiometer of this design can be inverted to yield vertical profiles of Rayleigh scatterers, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, aerosol extinction, and aerosol physical properties, including a Junge size-distribution parameter, and a real and imaginary index of refraction. The radiometer design provides the capacity for remote sensing of stratospheric constituents from space on platforms such as the space shuttle and satellites, and therefore provides for global measurements on a daily basis

    Tree-Independent Dual-Tree Algorithms

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    Dual-tree algorithms are a widely used class of branch-and-bound algorithms. Unfortunately, developing dual-tree algorithms for use with different trees and problems is often complex and burdensome. We introduce a four-part logical split: the tree, the traversal, the point-to-point base case, and the pruning rule. We provide a meta-algorithm which allows development of dual-tree algorithms in a tree-independent manner and easy extension to entirely new types of trees. Representations are provided for five common algorithms; for k-nearest neighbor search, this leads to a novel, tighter pruning bound. The meta-algorithm also allows straightforward extensions to massively parallel settings.Comment: accepted in ICML 201

    Stabilizing All Geometric Moduli in Heterotic Calabi-Yau Vacua

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    We propose a scenario to stabilize all geometric moduli - that is, the complex structure, Kahler moduli and the dilaton - in smooth heterotic Calabi-Yau compactifications without Neveu-Schwarz three-form flux. This is accomplished using the gauge bundle required in any heterotic compactification, whose perturbative effects on the moduli are combined with non-perturbative corrections. We argue that, for appropriate gauge bundles, all complex structure and a large number of other moduli can be perturbatively stabilized - in the most restrictive case, leaving only one combination of Kahler moduli and the dilaton as a flat direction. At this stage, the remaining moduli space consists of Minkowski vacua. That is, the perturbative superpotential vanishes in the vacuum without the necessity to fine-tune flux. Finally, we incorporate non-perturbative effects such as gaugino condensation and/or instantons. These are strongly constrained by the anomalous U(1) symmetries which arise from the required bundle constructions. We present a specific example, with a consistent choice of non-perturbative effects, where all remaining flat directions are stabilized in an AdS vacuum.Comment: 24 pages, 2 figure

    Numerical Hermitian Yang-Mills Connections and Vector Bundle Stability in Heterotic Theories

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    A numerical algorithm is presented for explicitly computing the gauge connection on slope-stable holomorphic vector bundles on Calabi-Yau manifolds. To illustrate this algorithm, we calculate the connections on stable monad bundles defined on the K3 twofold and Quintic threefold. An error measure is introduced to determine how closely our algorithmic connection approximates a solution to the Hermitian Yang-Mills equations. We then extend our results by investigating the behavior of non slope-stable bundles. In a variety of examples, it is shown that the failure of these bundles to satisfy the Hermitian Yang-Mills equations, including field-strength singularities, can be accurately reproduced numerically. These results make it possible to numerically determine whether or not a vector bundle is slope-stable, thus providing an important new tool in the exploration of heterotic vacua.Comment: 52 pages, 15 figures. LaTex formatting of figures corrected in version 2

    Heterotic Compactification, An Algorithmic Approach

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    We approach string phenomenology from the perspective of computational algebraic geometry, by providing new and efficient techniques for proving stability and calculating particle spectra in heterotic compactifications. This is done in the context of complete intersection Calabi-Yau manifolds in a single projective space where we classify positive monad bundles. Using a combination of analytic methods and computer algebra we prove stability for all such bundles and compute the complete particle spectrum, including gauge singlets. In particular, we find that the number of anti-generations vanishes for all our bundles and that the spectrum is manifestly moduli-dependent.Comment: 36 pages, Late
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