34 research outputs found

    A comprehensive analysis of genetic risk for metabolic syndrome in the Egyptian population via allele frequency investigation and Missense3D predictions

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    Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents a major health problem in Egypt and worldwide, with increasing numbers of patients with prediabetes every year. Numerous factors, such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, which have recently become serious concerns, affect the complex pathophysiology of diabetes. These metabolic syndrome diseases are highly linked to genetic variability that drives certain populations, such as Egypt, to be more susceptible to developing DM. Here we conduct a comprehensive analysis to pinpoint the similarities and uniqueness among the Egyptian genome reference and the 1000-genome subpopulations (Europeans, Ad-Mixed Americans, South Asians, East Asians, and Africans), aiming at defining the potential genetic risk of metabolic syndromes. Selected approaches incorporated the analysis of the allele frequency of the different populations’ variations, supported by genotypes’ principal component analysis. Results show that the Egyptian’s reference metabolic genes were clustered together with the Europeans’, Ad-Mixed Americans’, and South-Asians’. Additionally, 8563 variants were uniquely identified in the Egyptian cohort, from those, two were predicted to cause structural damage, namely, CDKAL1: 6_21065070 (A > T) and PPARG: 3_12351660 (C > T) utilizing the Missense3D database. The former is a protein coding gene associated with Type 2 DM while the latter is a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. Both variants were detected heterozygous in two different Egyptian individuals from overall 110 sample. This analysis sheds light on the unique genetic traits of the Egyptian population that play a role in the DM high prevalence in Egypt. The proposed analysis pipeline -available through GitHub- could be used to conduct similar analysis for other diseases across populations

    Algorithm engineering for optimal alignment of protein structure distance matrices

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    Protein structural alignment is an important problem in computational biology. In this paper, we present first successes on provably optimal pairwise alignment of protein inter-residue distance matrices, using the popular Dali scoring function. We introduce the structural alignment problem formally, which enables us to express a variety of scoring functions used in previous work as special cases in a unified framework. Further, we propose the first mathematical model for computing optimal structural alignments based on dense inter-residue distance matrices. We therefore reformulate the problem as a special graph problem and give a tight integer linear programming model. We then present algorithm engineering techniques to handle the huge integer linear programs of real-life distance matrix alignment problems. Applying these techniques, we can compute provably optimal Dali alignments for the very first time

    Genome-wide significant association with seven novel multiple sclerosis risk loci

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    Objective: A recent large-scale study in multiple sclerosis (MS) using the ImmunoChip platform reported on 11 loci that showed suggestive genetic association with MS. Additional data in sufficiently sized and independent data sets are needed to assess whether these loci represent genuine MS risk factors. Methods: The lead SNPs of all 11 loci were genotyped in 10 796 MS cases and 10 793 controls from Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Austria and Russia, that were independent from the previously reported cohorts. Association analyses were performed using logistic regression based on an additive model. Summary effect size estimates were calculated using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: Seven of the 11 tested SNPs showed significant association with MS susceptibility in the 21 589 individuals analysed here. Meta-analysis across our and previously published MS case-control data (total sample size n=101 683) revealed novel genome-wide significant association with MS susceptibility (p<5×10−8) for all seven variants. This included SNPs in or near LOC100506457 (rs1534422, p=4.03×10−12), CD28 (rs6435203, p=1.35×10−9), LPP (rs4686953, p=3.35×10−8), ETS1 (rs3809006, p=7.74×10−9), DLEU1 (rs806349, p=8.14×10−12), LPIN3 (rs6072343, p=7.16×10−12) and IFNGR2 (rs9808753, p=4.40×10−10). Cis expression quantitative locus effects were observed in silico for rs6435203 on CD28 and for rs9808753 on several immunologically relevant genes in the IFNGR2 locus. Conclusions: This study adds seven loci to the list of genuine MS genetic risk factors and further extends the list of established loci shared across autoimmune diseases

    Genome-wide significant association with seven novel multiple sclerosis risk loci

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    Objective: A recent large-scale study in multiple sclerosis (MS) using the ImmunoChip platform reported on 11 loci that showed suggestive genetic association with MS. Additional data in sufficiently sized and independent data sets are needed to assess whether these loci represent genuine MS risk factors. Methods: The lead SNPs of all 11 loci were genotyped in 10 796 MS cases and 10 793 controls from Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Austria and Russia, that were independent from the previously reported cohorts. Association analyses were performed using logistic regression based on an additive model. Summary effect size estimates were calculated using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: Seven of the 11 tested SNPs showed significant association with MS susceptibility in the 21 589 individuals analysed here. Meta-analysis across our and previously published MS case-control data (total sample size n=101 683) revealed novel genome-wide significant association with MS susceptibility (p<5×10−8) for all seven variants. This included SNPs in or near LOC100506457 (rs1534422, p=4.03×10−12), CD28 (rs6435203, p=1.35×10−9), LPP (rs4686953, p=3.35×10−8), ETS1 (rs3809006, p=7.74×10−9), DLEU1 (rs806349, p=8.14×10−12), LPIN3 (rs6072343, p=7.16×10−12) and IFNGR2 (rs9808753, p=4.40×10−10). Cis expression quantitative locus effects were observed in silico for rs6435203 on CD28 and for rs9808753 on several immunologically relevant genes in the IFNGR2 locus. Conclusions: This study adds seven loci to the list of genuine MS genetic risk factors and further extends the list of established loci shared across autoimmune diseases

    DALIX: optimal DALI protein structure alignment

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    International audienceWe present a mathematical model and exact algorithm for protein structure alignment using dali scoring, which is an NP-hard problem. dali scoring is based on comparing the inter-residue distance matrices of proteins and is the scoring model of the widely used heuristic dali program. Our model and algorithm extend an integer linear programming approach previously used for the related contact map overlap problem. To this end, we introduce a novel type of constraint that handles negative structure scores and relax it in a Lagrangian fashion. We also review options that allow to consider less pairs of inter-residue distances explicitly, because their large number makes it difficult to optimize dali scoring optimally. We use our exact algorithm DALIX to compute many provably score-optimal DALI alignments for the first time, using four data sets of varying structural similarity. Further, using our exact DALIX alignments, it is for the very first time possible to qualitatively benchmark the heuristic DALI program in sound mathemat- ical terms. The results indicate that DALI often computes optimal or close to optimal alignments, but also that in cases of aligning small proteins it tends to fail generating any significant alignment although such an alignment exists.L'article présente le modèle mathématique et un algorithme exacte pour aligner des structures protéiques à la base du score DALI

    PAUL: Protein structural alignment using integer linear programming and Lagrangian relaxation

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