5,655 research outputs found

    Internal and External Factors Associated with Illicit Prescription Drug Use in College Students

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    With data suggesting emerging adulthood is a time of increased risk for illicit prescription drug use, it is essential that factors contributing to this be understood to guide prevention efforts. Internal factors (stress, GPA, gender) and external factors (type of institution, living situation) were assessed in tandem with perceptions of harm and illicit prescription drug use. In accordance with nationwide research (SAMSHA, 2006), 14% of our sample of Oregon college students reported illicitly using prescription drugs. While rates of use did not vary by gender, females held higher perceptions of harm. Perceived harm was high for our sample and inversely correlated with use. Those living on campus reported higher perceptions of harm and less use than those living off campus. Those attending private academic institutions reported higher perceptions of harm and less use than those attending public institutions. Previous studies suggest a heightened sense of community within schools, comparatively present within private institutions, can reduce drug use (Battistich, & Hom, 1997). Stress was positively correlated with use and GPA was negatively correlated with use. While numerous studies have examined various correlates of prescription drug use, few have sampled beyond a single institution, most within public universities. Thus, the inclusion of private institutions offers unique and a more holistic insight. As drug use continues to increase in college populations even with prevention programs in place, it is imperative to translate these findings into prevention targeting both genders, at times of stress, particularly those living off campus, at public universities, with lower GPAs

    A Cross-Cultural Look at Co-rumination, Self-Disclosure, Friendship, Relational Concerns and Emotional Adjustment

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    Rose (2002) first defined co-rumination as extensive problem-focused talk, and it has been found to be associated with both depression/anxiety and friendship quality. However, our understanding of co-rumination is limited by an exclusive focus on Western samples of mostly children/adolescents. Thus, the primary aim of the current study is to investigate the construct validity of co-rumination in an Asian sample by examining associations among rumination, co-rumination, emotional adjustment, self-disclosure and friendship quality. We predict that Asians will report lower levels of co-rumination, and we expect gender differences in co-rumination to replicate cross-culturally. 224 Asian students (69 men, 153 women) from universities in Hong Kong and East China and 118 U.S. students (43 men, 75 women) from a private college in the Northwest participated in the study. Expected gender differences were found. Significant positive relationships emerged between co-rumination, self-disclosure, friendship quality, and rumination in both samples. Asian students reported significantly higher levels of co-rumination but lower levels of self-disclosure. Asians reported higher levels of relational concerns than U.S students. Relational concerns partially mediated cultural differences in self-disclosure but not in co-rumination. Surprisingly, co-rumination was unrelated to adjustment and did not predict unique variance in anxiety/depression beyond the effects of rumination. The current findings highlight the complexity of co-rumination as an interpersonal process vs. support-seeking functions in Asians. With limited research on co-rumination in emerging adults, it is unknown whether unique sampling issues or a meaningful developmental shift accounts for the lack of associations between co-rumination and anxiety/depression among U.S. students. Regardless, future longitudinal research should incorporate strategies (e.g., observational data, time sampling) that extend beyond self-report. These designs promise to sharpen our understanding as they more fully capture the dynamic forces at play in co-rumination that may vary across time and culture

    Program for the transient response of ablating axisymmetric bodies including the effects of shape change

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    Governing differential equation, boundary conditions for the analysis on which computer program is based, and method of solution of resulting finite difference equations are discussed in the documentation

    Does a Gatekeeper Suicide Prevention Program Work in a School Setting? Evaluating Training Outcome and Moderators of Effectiveness

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    The current study sought to evaluate the suicide prevention gatekeeper training program QPR (Question, Persuade, and Refer) among school personnel using a non-equivalent control group design. Substantial gains were demonstrated from pre- to post-test for attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding suicide and suicide prevention. Exploratory analyses revealed the possible moderating effects of age, professional role, prior training, and recent contact with suicidal youth on QPR participants’ general knowledge, questioning, attitudes toward suicide and suicide prevention, QPR quiz scores, and self-efficacy. The need for replication using a more rigorous experimental design in the context of strong community collaboration is discussed

    Data-Driven Change in Oregon Psychologists’ Knowledge and Attitudes about Prescriptive Authority

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    With over half of all states having considered legislating prescriptive authority, an immense amount of time and money has been invested. The literature is limited in terms of understanding if opinions toward prescriptive authority are grounded in knowledge and what implications that has for altering these opinions. Following a veto of a prescriptive authority bill in Oregon, 160 licensed Oregon clinical psychologists were surveyed regarding their attitudes and knowledge. In terms of knowledge, only 5.6% knew which three states/territories currently have prescriptive authority and 70.4% were unfamiliar with any of the prerequisites for postdoctoral training in psychopharmacology. Reflecting division, 42.8% were in favor, 20.1% were undecided, and 37.1% were in opposition to broadening privileges for psychologists. Further, only 15.1% expressed interest in pursuing training or 6.4% in becoming a prescriber. Data on access, training, and legislative costs were presented to participants in the education condition. These participants showed significant gains in their knowledge across all domains and their opinions shifted only in these specific areas leaving their general stance on the issue unchanged. In contrast to ardent supporters who argue that their “data should provide reassurance to psychologists spearheading legislative initiatives” because of high approval ratings (Sammons et al., 2000, p. 608), our data suggest disagreement amongst a group of professionals who are not particularly well-informed, nor interested in becoming prescribers. Future work should investigate whether expanding the data relevant to other facets of the argument contributes to further targeted change or an overall change in opinion toward prescriptive authority

    Niagaran (Silurian) trilobites from Ohio

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    For the most part, Silurian trilobites from Ohio have been poorly documented. This paper records taxa from the Niagaran Series. Specimens discussed here were collected from the southern and west-central areas of the state. Species reported here are Arctinurus boltoni (which is questionably recorded from Ohio), Bumastus insignis, Cheirurus niagarensis, Flexicalymene celebra, Sphaerexochus romingeri, Trimerus delphinocephalus, Dalmanites brevicaudatus, and Dalmanites platycaudatus. One species of Calymene is left in open nomenclature. During the deposition of the Niagaran in Ohio, trilobites lived in a variety of shallow marine environments, although most are associated with reef, inter-reef, and reef-flank lithofacies.No embarg

    Parentification and Maternal HIV Infection: Beneficial Role or Pathological Burden?

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    Parentification, along with parenting and child adjustment were examined in 23 9-through 16-year-old youth from families affected by maternal HIV infection and 20 same-age peers whose mothers were not infected. Children whose mothers were HIV-positive reported to more often engage in parental role behaviors, relative to children of HIV-negative mothers. This difference remained even after controlling for the effects of current drug use, number of adults per child in the household, and marital status. Findings revealed a beneficial relationship between parentification and both child adjustment and parenting, particularly among families affected by maternal HIV infection. When relationships were examined separately by HIV status, the pattern of results suggested that parentification, which involves increased emotional closeness, rather than role-related tasks, which may involve increased responsibility of household maintenance, seems to foster an association with concurrent positive parenting and child adjustment among families coping with HIV/AIDS. Directions for future research, including the need for methodological advances in the field are discussed

    Criminal Procedure—Washington\u27s Standard for Determining Ineffectiveness of Counsel—State v. Jury, 19 Wn. App. 256, 576 P.2d 1302 (1978)

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    This note first examines the development of the standards currently applied in Washington for determining whether a defendant has been denied effective assistance of counsel and whether that denial was prejudicial. It then analyzes the Jury court\u27s application of the standards, and concludes that the court\u27s interpretation of the standards, while better reasoned than prior Washington case law, is not supported by Washington Supreme Court precedent. Finally, it is suggested that Jury\u27s primary importance is the increased pressure it may place on the Washington Supreme Court to review and clarify this area of Washington la
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