19,163 research outputs found

    Constraints on Off-Axis X-Ray Emission from Beamed GRBs

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    We calculate the prompt x-ray emission as a function of viewing angle for beamed Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) sources. Prompt x-rays are inevitable due to the less highly blueshifted photons emitted at angles greater than 1/gamma relative to the beam symmetry axis, where gamma is the expansion Lorentz factor. The observed flux depends on the combinations (gamma Delta theta) and (gamma theta_v), where (Delta theta) is the beaming angle and theta_v is the viewing angle. We use the observed source counts of gamma-ray-selected GRBs to predict the minimum detection rate of prompt x-ray bursts as a function of limiting sensitivity. We compare our predictions with the results from the Ariel V catalog of fast x-ray transients, and find that Ariel's sensitivity is not great enough to place significant constraints on gamma and (Delta theta). We estimate that a detector with fluence limit ~10^{-7} erg/cm^2 in the 2-10 keV channel will be necessary to distinguish between geometries. Because the x-ray emission is simultaneous with the GRB emission, our predicted constraints do not involve any model assumptions about the emission physics but simply follow from special-relativistic considerations.Comment: Submitted to Ap

    Infinite products involving binary digit sums

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    Let (un)n≥0(u_n)_{n\ge 0} denote the Thue-Morse sequence with values ±1\pm 1. The Woods-Robbins identity below and several of its generalisations are well-known in the literature \begin{equation*}\label{WR}\prod_{n=0}^\infty\left(\frac{2n+1}{2n+2}\right)^{u_n}=\frac{1}{\sqrt 2}.\end{equation*} No other such product involving a rational function in nn and the sequence unu_n seems to be known in closed form. To understand these products in detail we study the function \begin{equation*}f(b,c)=\prod_{n=1}^\infty\left(\frac{n+b}{n+c}\right)^{u_n}.\end{equation*} We prove some analytical properties of ff. We also obtain some new identities similar to the Woods-Robbins product.Comment: Accepted in Proc. AMMCS 2017, updated according to the referees' comment

    Mechanisms and Observations of Coronal Dimming for the 2010 August 7 Event

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    Coronal dimming of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission has the potential to be a useful forecaster of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As emitting material leaves the corona, a temporary void is left behind which can be observed in spectral images and irradiance measurements. The velocity and mass of the CMEs should impact the character of those observations. However, other physical processes can confuse the observations. We describe these processes and the expected observational signature, with special emphasis placed on the differences. We then apply this understanding to a coronal dimming event with an associated CME that occurred on 2010 August 7. Data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) are used for observations of the dimming, while the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's (SOHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory's (STEREO) COR1 and COR2 are used to obtain velocity and mass estimates for the associated CME. We develop a technique for mitigating temperature effects in coronal dimming from full-disk irradiance measurements taken by EVE. We find that for this event, nearly 100% of the dimming is due to mass loss in the corona

    Effects of the triaxial deformation and pairing correlation on the proton emitter 145Tm

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    The ground-state properties of the recent reported proton emitter 145Tm have been studied within the axially or triaxially deformed relativistic mean field (RMF) approaches, in which the pairing correlation is taken into account by the BCS-method with a constant pairing gap. It is found that triaxiality and pairing correlations play important roles in reproducing the experimental one proton separation energy. The single-particle level, the proton emission orbit, the deformation parameters beta = 0.22 and gamma = 28.98 and the corresponding spectroscopic factor for 145Tm in the triaxial RMF calculation are given as well.Comment: 17 pages, 7 figures and 1 table. accepted by Physical Review

    Predictions for The Very Early Afterglow and The Optical Flash

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    According to the internal-external shocks model for γ\gamma -ray bursts (GRBs), the GRB is produced by internal shocks within a relativistic flow while the afterglow is produced by external shocks with the ISM. We explore the early afterglow emission. For short GRBs the peak of the afterglow will be delayed, typically, by few dozens of seconds after the burst. For long GRBs the early afterglow emission will overlap the GRB signal. We calculate the expected spectrum and the light curves of the early afterglow in the optical, X-ray and γ\gamma -ray bands. These characteristics provide a way to discriminate between late internal shocks emission (part of the GRB) and the early afterglow signal. If such a delayed emission, with the characteristics of the early afterglow, will be detected it can be used both to prove the internal shock scenario as producing the GRB, as well as to measure the initial Lorentz factor of the relativistic flow. The reverse shock, at its peak, contains energy which is comparable to that of the GRB itself, but has a much lower temperature than that of the forward shock so it radiates at considerably lower frequencies. The reverse shock dominates the early optical emission, and an optical flash brighter than 15th magnitude, is expected together with the forward shock peak at x-rays or γ\gamma-rays. If this optical flash is not observed, strong limitations can be put on the baryonic contents of the relativistic shell deriving the GRBs, leading to a magnetically dominated energy density.Comment: 23 pages including 4 figure

    Progression and assessment in foreign languages at Key Stage 2

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    The teaching of primary languages has been increasing steadily, in response to the future entitlement for all Key Stage 2 (KS2) pupils aged 7-11 to learn a foreign language by 2010. However, there remain concerns about progression both within KS2 and through to secondary school and about how learners' progress is assessed. This paper presents findings on the issues of progression and assessment taken from case studies which formed part of a project funded by the then Department for Education and Skills (DfES), now the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF). This project set out to evaluate 19 local authority (LA) Pathfinders in England that were piloting the introduction of foreign language learning at KS2 between 2003 and 2005. Findings revealed that there was inconsistency between schools, even within each LA Pathfinder, in the use of schemes of work and that assessment was generally underdeveloped in the majority of the Pathfinders. In order to set these findings in context, this paper examines the issues of progression and assessment in foreign language learning in England. Finally, it investigates the challenges English primary schools face in terms of progression and assessment in the light of the new entitlement and discusses implications for the future. Managing progression, both within KS2 and through to secondary school at KS3 (ages 11-14), is one of the key factors in determining the overall success of starting languages in primary school

    An outside-inside view of exclusive practice within an inclusive mainstream school

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    This article is a reflection on a sabbatical experience in a mainstream school where an inclusive ethos underpinned the curriculum and environmental approaches for all children. The period as Acting Head teacher raised some challenges for me in reconciling inclusion for all children and the exclusive nature of some professional and physical spaces available to the community of adults working in the school. It has highlighted some development opportunities for the senior management of the school and its governing body

    INTEGRAL high energy detection of the transient IGR J11321-5311

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    Context: The transient hard X-ray source IGR J11321-5311 was discovered by INTEGRAL on June 2005, during observations of the Crux spiral arm. To date, this is the only detection of the source to be reported by any X/gamma-ray mission. Aims: To characterize the behaviour and hence the nature of the source through temporal and spectral IBIS analysis. Methods: Detailed spectral and temporal analysis has been performed using standard INTEGRAL software OSA v.5.1. Results: To date, IGR J11321-5311 has been detected only once. It was active for about 3.5 hours, a short and bright flare lasting about 1.5 hours is evident in the IBIS light curve. It reached a peak flux of about 80 mCrab or 2.2x10E-9 erg cmE-2 sE-1 (20--300 keV),corresponding to a peak luminosity of 1.1x10E37 erg sE-1 (assuming a distance of 6.5 kpc). During the outburst, the source was detected with a significance of 18 sigma (20--300 keV) and 8 sigma (100--300 keV). The spectrum of the total outburst activity (17--300 keV) is best fitted by the sum of a power law (Gamma=0.55+/-0.18) plus a black body (kT=1.0{+0.2}_{-0.3} keV), with no evidence for a break up to 300 keV. A spectral analysis at Science Window level revealed an evident hardening of the spectrum through the outburst. The IBIS data were searched for pulsations with no positive result. Conclusions: The X-ray spectral shape and the flaring behaviour favour the hypothesis that IGR J11321-5311 is an Anomalous X-ray Pulsar, though a different nature can not be firmly rejected at the present stage.Comment: accepted for publication in A&A letter, 4 pages, 6 figure
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