1,538 research outputs found

    Studies of multiple stellar systems - III. Modulation of orbital elements in the triple-lined system HD 109648

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    The triple-lined spectroscopic triple system HD 109648 has one of the shortest periods known for the outer orbit in a late-type triple, 120.5 days, and the ratio between the periods of the outer and inner orbits is small, 22:1. With such extreme values, this system should show orbital element variations over a timescale of about a decade. We have monitored the radial velocities of HD 109648 with the CfA Digital Speedometers for eight years, and have found evidence for modulation of some orbital elements. While we see no definite evidence for modulation of the inner binary eccentricity, we clearly observe variations in the inner and outer longitudes of periastron, as well as in the radial velocity amplitudes of the three components. The observational results, combined with numerical simulations, allow us to put constraints on the orientation of the orbits.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, accepted by MNRA

    A Possible Correlation between Mass Ratio and Period Ratio in Multiple Planetary Systems

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    We report on a possible correlation between the mass ratio and period ratio of pairs of adjacent planets in extra-solar planetary systems. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the effect is significant to level of 0.7%, as long as we exclude two pairs of planets whose periods are at the 1:2 resonance. Only the next few multiple systems can tell if the correlation is real.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figures, published in The Astrophysical Journal Letter

    Similarities Between the Inner Solar System and the Planetary System of PSR B1257+12

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    We call attention to the surprising similarity between the newly discovered planetary system around PSR B1257+12 and the inner solar system. The similarity is in the ratios of the orbital radii and the masses of the three planets.Comment: 4 pages including 1 figure. uuencoded compressed postscript fil

    Time variation of Kepler transits induced by stellar rotating spots - a way to distinguish between prograde and retrograde motion I. Theory

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    Some transiting planets discovered by the Kepler mission display transit timing variations (TTVs) induced by stellar spots that rotate on the visible hemisphere of their parent stars. An induced TTV can be observed when a planet crosses a spot and modifies the shape of the transit light curve, even if the time resolution of the data does not allow to detect the crossing event itself. We present an approach that can, in some cases, use the derived TTVs of a planet to distinguish between a prograde and a retrograde planetary motion with respect to the stellar rotation. Assuming a single spot darker than the stellar disc, spot crossing by the planet can induce measured positive (negative) TTV, if the crossing occurs in the first (second) half of the transit. On the other hand, the motion of the spot towards (away from) the center of the stellar visible disc causes the stellar brightness to decrease (increase). Therefore, for a planet with prograde motion, the induced TTV is positive when the local slope of the stellar flux at the time of transit is negative, and vice versa. Thus, we can expect to observe a negative (positive) correlation between the TTVs and the photometric slopes for prograde (retrograde) motion. Using a simplistic analytical approximation, and also the publicly available SOAP-T tool to produce light curves of transits with spot-crossing events, we show for some cases how the induced TTVs depend on the local stellar photometric slopes at the transit timings. Detecting this correlation in Kepler transiting systems with high enough signal-to-noise ratio can allow us to distinguish between prograde and retrograde planetary motions. In coming papers we present analyses of the KOIs and Kepler eclipsing binaries, following the formalism developed here.Comment: V2: Major revision, accepted to Ap

    Stellar Rotation Periods of the Kepler Objects of Interest: A Dearth of Close-in Planets around Fast Rotators

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    We present a large sample of stellar rotation periods for Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), based on three years of public Kepler data. These were measured by detecting periodic photometric modulation caused by star spots, using an algorithm based on the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the light curve, developed recently by McQuillan, Aigrain & Mazeh (2013). Of the 1919 main-sequence exoplanet hosts analyzed, robust rotation periods were detected for 737. Comparing the detected stellar periods to the orbital periods of the innermost planet in each system reveals a notable lack of close-in planets around rapid rotators. It appears that only slowly spinning stars, with rotation periods longer than 5-10 days, host planets on orbits shorter than 3 days, although the mechanism(s) that lead(s) to this is not clear.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJL on 8th Aug 2013, 5 pages, 3 figures, 1 table. A full machine-readable version of Table 1 is available as an ancillary fil
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