12 research outputs found

    Spatial determination and prognostic impact of the fibroblast transcriptome in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

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    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a poor clinical outcome and responses to immunotherapy are suboptimal. Stromal fibroblasts are a dominant but heterogenous population within the tumor microenvironment and therapeutic targeting of stromal subsets may have therapeutic utility. Here, we combine spatial transcriptomics and scRNA-Seq datasets to define the transcriptome of tumor-proximal and tumor-distal cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and link this to clinical outcome. Tumor-proximal fibroblasts comprise large populations of myofibroblasts, strongly expressed podoplanin, and were enriched for Wnt ligand signaling. In contrast, inflammatory CAFs were dominant within tumor-distal subsets and expressed complement components and the Wnt-inhibitor SFRP2. Poor clinical outcome was correlated with elevated HIF-1α and podoplanin expression whilst expression of inflammatory and complement genes was predictive of extended survival. These findings demonstrate the extreme transcriptional heterogeneity of CAFs and its determination by apposition to tumor. Selective targeting of tumor-proximal subsets, potentially combined with HIF-1α inhibition and immune stimulation, may offer a multi-modal therapeutic approach for this disease

    Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific and heterologous immune responses in vaccine-naïve residents of long-term care facilities who survive natural infection

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    We studied humoral and cellular immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 152 long-term care facility staff and 124 residents over a prospective 4-month period shortly after the first wave of infection in England. We show that residents of long-term care facilities developed high and stable levels of antibodies against spike protein and receptor-binding domain. Nucleocapsid-specific responses were also elevated but waned over time. Antibodies showed stable and equivalent levels of functional inhibition against spike-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding in all age groups with comparable activity against viral variants of concern. SARS-CoV-2 seropositive donors showed high levels of antibodies to other beta-coronaviruses but serostatus did not impact humoral immunity to influenza or other respiratory syncytial viruses. SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular responses were similar across all ages but virus-specific populations showed elevated levels of activation in older donors. Thus, survivors of SARS-CoV-2 infection show a robust and stable immunity against the virus that does not negatively impact responses to other seasonal viruses

    Immune landscape in Burkitt lymphoma reveals M2-macrophage polarization and correlation between PD-L1 expression and non-canonical EBV latency program

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    Background: The Tumor Microenviroment (TME) is a complex milieu that is increasingly recognized as a key factor in multiple stages of disease progression and responses to therapy as well as escape from immune surveillance. However, the precise contribution of specific immune effector and immune suppressor components of the TME in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) remains poorly understood. Methods: In this paper, we applied the computational algorithm CIBERSORT to Gene Expression Profiling (GEP) datasets of 40 BL samples to draw a map of immune and stromal components of TME. Furthermore, by multiple immunohistochemistry (IHC) and multispectral immunofluorescence (IF), we investigated the TME of additional series of 40 BL cases to evaluate the role of the Programmed Death-1 and Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) immune checkpoint axis. Results: Our results indicate that M2 polarized macrophages are the most prominent TME component in BL. In addition, we investigated the correlation between PD-L1 and latent membrane protein-2A (LMP2A) expression on tumour cells, highlighting a subgroup of BL cases characterized by a non-canonical latency program of EBV with an activated PD-L1 pathway. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study analysed the TME in BL and identified a tolerogenic immune signature highlighting new potential therapeutic targets

    NK cells in pancreatic cancer demonstrate impaired cytotoxicity and a regulatory IL-10 phenotype.

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    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most common tumor subtypes and remains associated with very poor survival. T cell infiltration into tumor tissue is associated with improved clinical outcome but little is known regarding the potential role of NK cells in disease control. Here we analyze the phenotype and function of NK cells in the blood and tumor tissue from patients with PDAC. Peripheral NK cells are present in normal numbers but display a CD16CD57 phenotype with marked downregulation of NKG2D. Importantly, these cells demonstrate reduced cytotoxic activity and low levels of IFN-γ expression but instead produce high levels of intracellular IL-10, an immunoregulatory cytokine found at increased levels in the blood of PDAC patients. In contrast, NK cells are largely excluded from tumor tissue where they display strong downregulation of both CD16 and CD57, a phenotype that was recapitulated in primary NK cells following co-culture with PDAC organoids. Moreover, expression of activatory proteins, including DNAM-1 and NKP30, was markedly suppressed and the DNAM-1 ligand PVR was strongly expressed on tumor cells. As such, and peripheral NK cells display differential features in patients with PDAC and indicate local and systemic mechanisms by which the tumor can evade immune control. These findings offer a number of potential options for NK-based immunotherapy in the management of patients with PDAC

    Collagen induces a more proliferative, migratory and chemoresistant phenotype in head and neck cancer via DDR1

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    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and includes squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx and oral cavity. Patient prognosis has remained poor for decades and molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use. Here we showed that the overall expression of collagen subunit genes was higher in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) than normal fibroblasts. Focusing on collagen8A1 and collagen11A1, we showed that collagen is produced by both CAFs and tumour cells, indicating that HNSCCs are collagen-rich environments. We then focused on discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen-activated receptor tyrosine kinase, and showed that it is over-expressed in HNSCC tissues. Further, we demonstrated that collagen promoted the proliferation and migration of HNSCC cells and attenuated the apoptotic response to cisplatin. Knockdown of DDR1 in HNSCC cells demonstrated that these tumour-promoting effects of collagen are mediated by DDR1. Our data suggest that specific inhibitors of DDR1 might provide novel therapeutic opportunities to treat HNSCC

    The contribution of discoidin domain receptor 1 to the pathogenesis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma

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    Collagen is the ligand for the discoidin domain receptor-1 (DDR1), a receptor tyrosine kinase that is over-expressed in Hodgkin lymphoma. However, the role of DDR1 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is not known. I showed that DDR1 is over-expressed in a subset of DLBCL where it positively correlates with expression of its collagen ligands, and negatively correlates with expression of mitotic spindle genes. DDR1 correlated genes also overlapped with three aneuploidy signatures and DDR1 expression correlated significantly with autosomal aneuploidy index. RNAseq analysis revealed that over-expression of DDR1 in primary germinal centre B cells down-regulated expression of CENPE, an essential component of the mitotic spindle checkpoint that when inactivated leads to chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy. CENPE expression was also significantly reduced in primary DLBCL. Moreover, I showed that the constitutive activation of DDR1 in an in vitro lymphoma model led to aneuploidy. Finally, I showed that DDR1 can be inhibited by three small molecules and established the basis for in vivo model to test these inhibitors in DLBCL xenograft. My data provide evidence that DDR1 can induce aneuploidy in B cells, and as such identify a mechanism to potentially explain the link between chronic inflammation and lymphomagenesis