485 research outputs found

    Plasma properties from the multi-wavelength analysis of the November 1st 2003 CME/shock event

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    The analysis of the spectral properties and dynamic evolution of a CME/shock event observed on November 1st 2003 in white-light by the LASCO coronagraph and in the ultraviolet by the UVCS instrument operating aboard SOHO, has been performed to compute the properties of some important plasma parameters in the middle corona below about 2 solar radii. Simultaneous observations obtained with the MLSO/Mk4 white-light coronagraph, providing both the early evolution of the CME expansion in the corona and the pre-shock electron density profile along the CME front, were also used to study this event. By combining the above information with the analysis of the metric type II radio emission detected by ground-based radio spectrographs, we finally derive estimates of the values of the local Alfv\'en speed and magnetic field strength in the solar corona.Comment: In press Journal of Advanced Research, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.

    A co-alteration parceling of the cingulate cortex

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    The cingulate cortex is known to be a complex structure, involved in several cognitive and emotional functions, as well as being altered by a variety of brain disorders. This heterogeneity is reflected in the multiple parceling models proposed in the literature. At the present, sub-regions of the cingulate cortex had been identified taking into account functional and structural connectivity, as well as cytological and electrochemical properties. In the present work, we propose an innovative node-wise parceling approach based on meta-analytic Bayesian co-alteration. To this aim, 193 case–control voxel-based morphometry experiments were analyzed, and the Patel’s κ index was used to assess probability of morphometric co-alteration between nodes placed in the cingulate cortex and in the rest of the brain. Hierarchical clustering was then applied to identify nodes in the cingulate cortex exhibiting a similar pattern of whole-brain co-alteration. The obtained dendrogram highlighted a robust fronto-parietal cluster compatible with the default mode network, and being supported by the interplay between the retrosplenial cortex and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, rarely described in the literature. This ensemble was further confirmed by the analysis of functional patterns. Leveraging on co-alteration to investigate cortical organization could, therefore, allow to combine multimodal information, resolving conflicting results sometimes coming from the separate use of singular modalities. Crucially, this provides a valuable way to understand the pathological brain using data driven, whole-brain informed and context-specific evidence in a way not yet explored in the field. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00429-022-02473-2

    Sex differences in brain homotopic co-activations: a meta-analytic study

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    An element of great interest in functional connectivity is ‘homotopic connectivity’ (HC), namely the connectivity between two mirrored areas of the two hemispheres, mainly mediated by the fibers of the corpus callosum. Despite a long tradition of studying sexual dimorphism in the human brain, to our knowledge only one study has addressed the influence of sex on HC. We investigated the issue of homotopic co-activations in women and men using a coordinate-based meta-analytic method and data from the BrainMap database. A first unexpected observation was that the database was affected by a sex bias: women-only groups are investigated less often than men-only ones, and they are more often studied in certain domains such as emotion compared to men, and less in cognition. Implementing a series of sampling procedures to equalize the size and proportion of the datasets, our results indicated that females exhibit stronger interhemispheric co-activation than males, suggesting that the female brain is less lateralized and more integrated than that of males. In addition, males appear to show less intense but more extensive co-activation than females. Some local differences also appeared. In particular, it appears that primary motor and perceptual areas are more co-activated in males, in contrast to the opposite trend in the rest of the brain. This argues for a multidimensional view of sex brain differences and suggests that the issue should be approached with more complex models than previously thought. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00429-022-02572-0

    A Case of Fatal Drug Rash Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms from Allopurinol

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    Hypereosinophilia is a systemic condition that has several possible etiologies: allergies, medications, infectious, autoimmune or other systemic diseases, and finally idiopathic forms. Skin involvement seems to relate to subcutaneous inflammatory infiltration in this condition, as can be observed in parasitic, autoimmune and bullous diseases, as well as in drug reactions. Generalizing, a severe adverse drug-induced reaction may cause a systemic inflammatory disease: Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS). Its diagnosis requires the application of a complex diagnostic algorithm and immediate identification to prevent inauspicious evolution. The prognosis is severe; drug discontinuation is sometimes not enough and so far the proposed therapies are not always valid. We describe a case of fatal DRESS in which we report: a) difficulties in the management and therapy of the syndrome in its most severe form, and b) need for caution in prescribing drugs potentially inducing DRESS, especially in elderly patients

    Selective adhesive luting: A novel technique for improving adhesion achieved by universal resin cements

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    Objective: We aimed to introduce the concept of "Selective adhesive luting-SAL" which is explained through clinical steps and supported by preliminary laboratory evidence. Clinical considerations: Cementation with rubber dam is difficult to perform in case of short abutment teeth and/or subgingival crown margins. By means of universal resin cements/universal adhesive systems, which can be employed in self-adhesive as well as adhesive luting procedures, this paper presents a novel technique allowing clinicians to perform reliable cementation where rubber dam isolation is difficult. The SAL technique entails the application of a universal adhesive system only on easily accessible abutment surfaces, enabling simultaneous adhesive and self-adhesive luting in different portions of the abutment. The SAL clinical workflow is explained through prosthodontic rehabilitation of maxillary right central incisor affected by microdontia and restored with a lithium-disilicate crown. Furthermore, our laboratory microshear bond strength study supports the rationale behind SAL application demonstrating higher bond strength even when the adhesive resin is placed only on one portion of the cementation substrate. Clinical significance: This article advocates the application of SAL technique in clinical situations where effective adhesive luting is uncertain, since it can improve the adhesion between the tooth and universal resin cements

    Resin composite cements: Current status and a novel classification proposal

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    ObjectivesCurrently, a classification of resin cements that includes relatively recently formulated ("universal") cements is lacking. Furthermore, the terminology used to define different resin cements in the scientific reports is inconsistent. Accordingly, this work aims to: (i) propose a novel classification of resin composite cements; (ii) disambiguate the term "universal cements" and (iii) present an overview of the properties of these cements. MethodsAn analysis of peer-reviewed literature (PubMed search), as well as market research on definitive resin composite cements were performed. ResultsA tendency toward simplified and versatile luting materials was observed both in the scientific literature and on the dental market with the advent of self-adhesive/one-step resin cements. However, additional priming procedures were necessary to improve their bonding performance in certain clinical situations. Hence, several cements that can be applied both in adhesive and self-adhesive mode were introduced. These cements are associated with a universal adhesive resin, that can be used as a tooth and/or restorative material primer, without the need for other priming systems, regardless of the substrate. These systems should be considered truly universal. Therefore, we hereby suggested a new classification of resin-based cements: (1) adhesive/multi-step; (2) self-adhesive/one-step; (3) universal cements (one- or multi-step). Despite promising in vitro results, clinical trials and long-track laboratory studies are necessary to confirm the reliability of the universal cements. ConclusionsThis review presented the current advances in the field of resin-based cements, which are reflected in the proposed classification. The term "universal cement" was disambiguated, which will help standardize the terminology used in published research. Clinical SignificanceThe classification of resin-based cements and a better understanding of the proper terminology will help standardize the terminology in published research, as well as improve the understanding of the clinical practitioners of the different indications and possible modalities of use of the available cements

    Linking neuroanatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder with gene expression of candidate ASD genes: A meta-analytic and network-oriented approach

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    BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of developmental conditions with widespread neuroanatomical abnormalities and a strong genetic basis. Although neuroimaging studies have indicated anatomical changes in grey matter (GM) morphometry, their associations with gene expression remain elusive. METHODS: Here, we aim to understand how gene expression correlates with neuroanatomical atypicalities in ASD. To do so, we performed a coordinate-based meta-analysis to determine the common GM variation pattern in the autistic brain. From the Allen Human Brain Atlas, we selected eight genes from the SHANK, NRXN, NLGN family and MECP2, which have been implicated with ASD, particularly in regards to altered synaptic transmission and plasticity. The gene expression maps for each gene were built. We then assessed the correlation between the gene expression maps and the GM alteration maps. Lastly, we projected the obtained clusters of GM alteration-gene correlations on top of the canonical resting state networks, in order to provide a functional characterization of the structural evidence. RESULTS: We found that gene expression of most genes correlated with GM alteration (both increase and decrease) in regions located in the default mode network. Decreased GM was also correlated with gene expression of some ASD genes in areas associated with the dorsal attention and cerebellar network. Lastly, single genes were found to be significantly correlated with increased GM in areas located in the somatomotor, limbic and ganglia/thalamus networks. CONCLUSIONS: This approach allowed us to combine the well beaten path of genetic and brain imaging in a novel way, to specifically investigate the relation between gene expression and brain with structural damage, and individuate genes of potential interest for further investigation in the functional domain

    Assessing awareness in severe Alzheimer's disease

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    There is an urgent need to understand the nature of awareness in people with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) to ensure effective person-centered care. Objective biomarkers of awareness validated in other clinical groups (e.g., anesthesia, minimally conscious states) offer an opportunity to investigate awareness in people with severe AD. In this article we demonstrate the feasibility of using Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with EEG, event related potentials (ERPs) and fMRI to assess awareness in severe AD. TMS-EEG was performed in six healthy older controls and three people with severe AD. The perturbational complexity index (PCIST) was calculated as a measure of capacity for conscious awareness. People with severe AD demonstrated a PCIST around or below the threshold for consciousness, suggesting reduced capacity for consciousness. ERPs were recorded during a visual perception paradigm. In response to viewing faces, two patients with severe AD provisionally demonstrated similar visual awareness negativity to healthy controls. Using a validated fMRI movie-viewing task, independent component analysis in two healthy controls and one patient with severe AD revealed activation in auditory, visual and fronto-parietal networks. Activation patterns in fronto-parietal networks did not significantly correlate between the patient and controls, suggesting potential differences in conscious awareness and engagement with the movie. Although methodological issues remain, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using objective measures of awareness in severe AD. We raise a number of challenges and research questions that should be addressed using these biomarkers of awareness in future studies to improve understanding and care for people with severe AD

    Reply to: "Reflecting the causes of variability of EEG responses elicited by cerebellar TMS"

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    In their commentary on our recently published paper about electroencephalographic responses induced by cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (Fong et al., 2023), Gassmann and colleagues (Gassmann et al., 2023b) try to explain the differences between our results and their own previous work on the same topic. We agree with them that many of the differences arise from our use of a different magnetic stimulation coil. However, two unresolved questions remain. (1) Which method is most likely to achieve optimal activation of cerebellar output? (2) To what extent are the evoked cerebellar responses contaminated by concomitant sensory input? We highlight the role of careful experimental design and of combining electrophysiological and behavioural data to obtain reliable TMS-EEG data
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